Respiratory System And Its Assessment In Children

Respiratory System and Its Assessment in Children Record (Assessment)

Respiratory System: Description

The human respiratory system (RS) is known as the system of organs that allows acquiring oxygen from the air flow, delivering it to the required organs, and exhale skin tightening and (CO2). The RS includes the lungs, which keep up with the continuous stream of oxygen and get rid of gaseous products from our body (Kon & Rai, 2016). The RS provides the airways also, which are usually categorized into lower and upper ones, and which serve the purpose of pumping air flow, whereas the oxygen that it contains is delivered to specific organs by using red blood tissues (Kon & Rai, 2016).

Despite the clockwork mechanism of the system, the RS is rather fragile since its overall performance can be disrupted once airways are blocked. The resulting experience of problems breathing and even possible suffocation may cause severe effects from oxygen deprivation to loss of life (Kon & Rai, 2016). Therefore, the full case under analysis, that involves minor concerns seemingly, especially, cough, needs in-depth evaluation.

Physiology: Construction and Function

The upper respiratory system includes the nasal cavity, nostrils, pharynx, epiglottis, and larynx (Boore, Make, & Shepherd, 2016). The low respiratory tract, subsequently, comprises the trachea, esophagus, pulmonary vessels, intercostal muscles, right and left lungs, center, bronchioles, the pleural membrane, alveoli, and the diaphragm (Boore et al., 2016). Through the procedure for breathing, oxygen (O2) is certainly changed into CO2. The latter, subsequently, is changed into HCO3 when transported from cells cells to the lung area (Ward, ‎Ward, ‎& Leach, 2015). The procedure of HCO3 development occurs simply because CO2 emitted from the lung area is coupled with H2O to create carbonic acid (H2CO3). The latter decomposes into H+ and HCO3 ions. The specified process is called peripheral control, that is against the central control.

Relevant Wellness History Questions

The existing information regarding the health status of the patient does not allow making obvious assumptions and diagnosing the problem. Therefore, a detailed assessment of the individual’s health history will be required. It is currently known that the patient is eight years old and that he has had a cough for five days. However, the root causes of the specified symptoms may vary from a minor respiratory inflammation caused by an infection to the first stage of asthma growth. Therefore, further tips shall need to be taken to determine the reason for the patient’s present condition. To define the factors that could have caused the cough, you can need to ask the individual or his mother the next questions:

Objective Information and Expected Results

Apart from counting on the evidence supplied by the patient, a therapist shall also need to perform several tests to find the actual reason behind the cough. For this function, the characteristics of a cough should be defined. For example, it shall be essential to check if the cough is dried out or productive. Also, a upper body X-ray allows determining if the nagging problem is due to lung obstruction. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) can be handy in case the issue actually is chronic (Sharafkhaneh, Yohannes, Hanania, & Kunik, 2017). Bronchial challenge tests and sinus imaging should be deployed if other ways of determining the problem end up being futile. It really is expected that the outcomes of the individual assessment will indicate a respiratory inflammation probably caused by an disease.

Physical Evaluation of Examination Methods

As above stressed, a physician might need to run several tests to look for the factors that could have caused the problem. However, from the specified strategies apart, one will also have to use specific examination methods. For example, the vital signs of the patient must be assessed. Also, a physician will have to revise all of the patient’s systems to ensure that the cause of the cough has been determined correctly and that no other factors affect its development. The specified step will have to be followed by the examination of the patient’s head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat. Also, a therapist will need to examine the patient’s neck and cardiovascular system to find possible factors that could trigger the cough.

Finally, upper body examination as the utmost important part of the specified assessment procedure shall be performed. The therapist will examine and palpate the individual’s chest to find the good known reasons for the cough to occur. The doctor may also have to measure the percussion of the lung fields along with the possible auscultation of the lungs. The specified checks will allow identifying the presence of wheezing, chest vibrations, and other characteristics of pulmonary obstruction that will allow defining the problem.

Physical Assessment Skills

To conduct the assessment, the therapist will have to use basic skills associated with the management of respiratory issues. Specifically, active observation will have to be used to identify the presence of a problem and explore its nature. Also, a therapist will require the ability to calculate the respiratory rate of the patient, examine his nasal cavity, and locate the presence of breathing problems such as for example wheezes and forced exhalation.

The specific skills may be used to accommodate the requirements of infants by firmly taking the truth that their airways are smaller sized under consideration. To manage the requirements of women that are pregnant, one will need to assess abdominal muscle tissue thickness aswell. Finally, to handle the ongoing health issues of geriatric patients, one will have to consider the problems of comorbidity and frailty. Thus, a comprehensive assessment will be conducted.

Disease That Can Affect the Respiratory System

As stressed above, there is a range of diseases and disorders that may have caused the cough that is currently observed in the patient. Among the most common causes of the cough, one should mention asthma, common cold, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The latter represents a combination of health issues that cause breathing issues (Boore et al., 2016). Therefore, the RS may have been affected by a massive variety of factors, and additional tests shall help locate the actual reason behind the cough.

Expected Irregular Findings

The tests are likely to return the outcomes that will signify the current presence of an infection, a common cold, or an allergic reaction that the patient must have suffered recently. The exposure to allergens may have triggered the fast development of the disease and, thus led to an unceasing cough. However, other causes of the problem may also be discovered in the course of the assessment since the current information is far too scarce to state the problem with certainty.


The case of a cough that was analyzed above lacks the data that could help define the presence of a particular issue straightaway. Thus, a therapist must perform further assessments to locate the cause of the issue and suggest the medications and treatment techniques that will help the patient. It is believed that the individual may have developed a standard cold, asthma, or another respiratory issue that could have triggered the nagging issue to emerge. In any scenario, an in depth assessment of the patient’s health history and profound analysis of test outcomes are required.


Boore, J., Make, N., & Shepherd, A new. (2016). Essentials of physiology and anatomy for nursing exercise . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Kon, C., & Rai, M. (2016). The microbiology of the respiratory system infections . NY, NY: Academic Push.

Sharafkhaneh, A new., Yohannes, A new. M., Hanania, N. A new., & Kunik, M. E. (2017). Melancholy and anxiety in sufferers with chronic respiratory illnesses . NY, NY: Springer.

Ward, ‎J. P. T., Ward, J., ‎& Leach, R. M. (2015). The the respiratory system instantly (4th ed.). NY, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

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