Quotas in Improving Gender Diversity in Leadership Essay

Quotas in Improving Gender Diversity in Leadership Essay

Introduction

Quotas and the numerous different affirmative action insurance policies search to additional access equality and alternatives together with growing range in workplaces and communities. Over the earlier few decades, ladies have made important progress in political activism, participation in the labor pressure, and schooling elsewhere across the globe. However, Pande and Ford (2011) argue that regardless of such advancements, gender gaps in leadership nonetheless exist even in the most advanced societies, including the US and Europe. Women have suffered for a long from the politics of patriarchy and social group frameworks placing males on the high of society.

For instance, earlier than 1890, women didn’t take pleasure in voting rights anyplace on the planet, however the situation has changed to allow them to take part in voting and other civic duties (Pande and Ford 2011). The drawback with the present instances is that women’s advancement has not led to vital increases of their management, whether or not in politics or enterprise. This paper discusses the usefulness of setting quotas in enhancing gender diversity in management. The argument made all through this paper is that quota coverage plays a central role in guaranteeing that girls get management positions in enterprise and politics.

The Role of Quotas in Improving Diversity in Leadership

Leadership just isn’t supposed to be held by selected teams of people as a outcome of, based mostly on the out there theories on the topic, changing into an effective chief isn’t associated to one’s gender. According to French et al. (2015), management could be taught, and thus any particular person, with the proper coaching and exposure could turn into a leader. As such, the idea of males dominating management positions is not primarily based on any scientific research. Such social beliefs have emerged from the many years of women’s oppression and inequality in society. However, issues are altering, and with rising theories on this topic, women are slowly finding their place in management positions throughout totally different areas, from politics and education to the corporate world. One such theory is the charismatic approach to leadership. French et al. (2015) argues that charismatic leaders are assured, articulate their visions clearly, and they have a agency perception in their visions. Dorfman et al. (2012) maintain that gender equality is common under charismatic management. To tackle the usefulness of quotas, you will want to understand whether inclusion, diversity, and equal opportunities are desirable in the first place.

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The problem of quotas could be defined from financial and moral perspectives. From an moral point of view, ladies ought to have equal alternatives in leadership as a moral issue as a outcome of failure to take action would result in marginalization, which leads to many disadvantages. Therefore, the introduction of quota insurance policies would counter such adverse effects by giving girls certain advantages in any form of the choice course of, be it in politics or business (Schwindt-Bayer 2009; Sojo et al. 2016). From an economic standpoint, quota insurance policies improve range and inclusion, which could have a optimistic affect on business performance (Ely and Thomas 2001). Therefore, it suffices to argue that setting quotas would improve variety in leadership positions, which comes with quite a few advantages. The following part discusses, utilizing case studies from international locations across the globe, the usefulness of setting quotas to improve variety in both politics and enterprise leadership.

One significance of utilizing a quota system to advertise diversity in management is the changing attitudes of women in regards to the matter. Currently, most ladies really feel that they’re ready and ready to take leadership positions in organizations and politics. A research carried out in West Bengal, India, showed that girls leaders really feel as competent as their male counterparts do when carrying out their management duties after being in office for 2 years (Pande and Ford 2011)—as properly as, changing attitudes towards working girls many not necessarily change the identical regarding girls in leadership. For occasion, nearly all of people in numerous elements of the world agree that the place of ladies is not within the kitchen. Therefore, females can now work in numerous capacities in various organizations. However, this alteration in perspective has not led to extra women occupying leadership positions. A research performed in 2006 in the US showed that fifty p.c of Americans would prefer their bosses to be males as opposed to females (Pande and Ford 2011). Consequently, with such mentalities, the one feasible means of making certain that ladies get into management positions is thru setting quotas. Without such policies, it would not matter whether societal attitudes regarding ladies are altering or not, and thus the current challenges will still be in place to impede gender equality and diversity in leadership.

Another issue that underscores the usefulness of setting quotas is the idea that economic improvement promotes female management. Logically, as nations develop economically, extra alternatives can be created for girls leaders (Duflo 2012). However, this line of thinking just isn’t based on sound scientific findings. For instance, most developed international locations, together with the US and the UK, continue to witness the underrepresentation of females in leadership roles, whether or not in politics or enterprise (Gipson et al., 2017). For instance, Americans have by no means elected a feminine president, which cancels the favored assumption that economic improvement leads to female leadership (Gipson et al., 2017).

Similarly, the ever-broadening profession paths for women have not led to an equal improve in feminine leaders. This implies that while ladies are more and more occupying high management positions in different firms, they are nonetheless deprived in varied areas. Additionally, in some cases, it’s assumed that increased political illustration would spill over to the corporate world. However, in locations like Norway, where ladies have been empowered, via quota insurance policies, to hitch politics and turn out to be leaders, the same impact isn’t felt in the corporate world (Geys and Sorensen 2019). As such, setting quotas and implementing the legal guidelines governing the identical would remedy these problems for women to occupy leadership positions and diversify the office in the course of.

Women also face quite a few limitations of their bid to turn into leaders, especially within the corporate world. First, women carry extra childcare responsibilities as in comparability with males, which implies that they’re related to larger prices of entering and continuing within the job market (Seo, Huang and Han 2017; Kossek and Buzzanell 2018). Therefore, without quotas, it might imply that assuming a management place is based on experience. However, given the above argument, girls may go for fewer hours because of childbearing and care responsibilities. As such, when management opportunities arise, males are more doubtless to take them as a end result of they’ve extra experience. On-the-job experience is considered one of the major factors that are considered when giving leadership posts to workers, and thus men are technically advantaged.

Consequently, few women will ever qualify for management positions if such a criterion is used. Women are additionally disadvantaged as a result of they lack enough function models to encourage them to compete for management roles. In addition, in some circumstances, girls might not be thinking about competitors, yet turning into a frontrunner demands competitiveness (Hoyt 2010). According to Niederle and Vesterlund (2007), when compared to males, girls don’t choose competitive engagements, particularly when put towards their male counterparts. Therefore, given the current aggressive winner-takes-all leadership setting, which is dominated by males, ladies face an additional challenge. Consequently, the introduction of quota techniques would degree the ground for girls and help them turn into leaders without having to engage in unfair competitors with males.

The issue of gender inequality is also seen from the demand side of society, particularly in politics. Beaman et al. (2009) argue that taste discrimination disadvantages women who’re seeking leadership positions. Such favoritism relies on personal tastes based mostly on social norms. As such, voters could prefer a male to female leaders as a end result of belief that women shouldn’t be in such positions (Adams 2016). The case of the US has by no means elected a feminine president could presumably be an appropriate instance of this assertion. Statistical discrimination additionally impacts the prospects of ladies turning into leaders (Eagly and Hellman 2016).

For instance, statistics could not have enough evidence to indicate the efficiency of women as leaders as a result of there lacks sufficient knowledge on the same given the few females occupying such positions. Therefore, numbers evaluating women and males leaders are more probably to be biased to favor men. Eagly and Hellman (2016) argue that discrimination is the best challenge that contributes to the underrepresentation of women in management positions. Biased methods of selection also reduce the possibilities of girls being in leadership positions. For occasion, the process of selecting board members within the corporate world is predicated on networks to the prevailing members and officials (Fairfax 2006). Consequently, qualified girls may miss out because they are not linked to anybody within the present boards. This drawback might thus be solved by having a quota system that dictates the number of girls that ought to be on boards of administration.

However, despite the various advantages related to quota techniques in management, some out there literature reveals the negative effects that such systems may have on business and politics. The first argument is the crowd-out effect whereby reserving certain slots for women disadvantages different minority teams that might profit from the same positions in an open system (Pande and Ford 2011). However, this argument is weak because the slots set aside for females could presumably be given to girls from different minority teams. In addition, quota insurance policies may worsen allocations in that poorly qualified individuals might be given leadership positions, which might be counterproductive in the long term. Rudman and Fairchild (2004) add that quotas that encourage the placement of women in counter-stereotypical positions might enhance style discrimination. Additionally, girls getting into management positions via quotas may be seen as incompetent, thus eradicating the significance of getting such insurance policies within the first place (Clayton 2015). However, the benefits of having quota systems are greater than the disadvantages. To understand the consequences of such insurance policies, two case studies (Norway and Qatar) will be discussed to evaluate whether or not quotas have achieved the intended objectives.

The Case of Norway

In 2002, Ansgar Gabrielsen, the then Conservative Minister for Trade and Industry in Norway, proposed the introduction of a quota system when deciding on firm boards within the country (Seierstad et al., 2015). This bold step motivated women throughout the globe to begin pushing for equality in leadership by way of policy, and 15 major European international locations, together with Spain, the UK, Iceland, France, Italy, and Belgium, enacted legal guidelines on quota techniques (de Cabo et al. 2019). In 2003, a legislation was passed requiring forty % of slots in corporate boards in inter-municipality, state-owned, and public restricted corporations to be reserved for girls in Norway (Seierstad et al., 2015). Due to the adoption of the quota system, Norway ranks third after Iceland and Finland as the most gender-equal nations on the planet (Seierstad and Huse 2017).

This policy has additionally affected different areas of Norwegian society, particularly in training. Seierstad and Huse (2017) posit that for the primary time within the country’s historical past, girls obtained more PhDs as compared to men in the 2014-2015 interval. Similarly, in 2015, the number of female college students in establishments of upper studying was 60 percent (Seierstad and Huse 2017). In politics, the share of females in leadership positions has also been rising significantly. For occasion, in 2016, forty seven p.c of cabinet members were ladies, and the prime minister was additionally a female (Bergh and Karlsen 2017). This trend of increased variety within the workplace, establishments of upper studying, and politics in Norway are attributed to the enactment of laws on quotas. While such a system isn’t applicable in faculties, the effects have spilled over because younger girls have sufficient position models, and thus they are motivated to study hard to qualify for such positions. Therefore, from this case, it is clear that making quota insurance policies play a major function in improving range in management.

The Case of Qatar

Qatar is a logo of socio-cultural change within the Middle East because of its fast-paced modernization and industrialization. Women are increasingly assuming leadership roles, particularly beneath the rules of the Qatar National Vision 2030 (QNV 2030), which was made public in 2008 (Golkowska 2017). QNV 2030 seeks to advertise gender equality in society in a area the place such rights are uncommon. However, unlike different locations like Norway that have quota policies in place, the Qatari authorities has not created such a framework for girls to turn into leaders in politics and enterprise. For instance, in 2009, solely 3 percent of employed females occupied leadership positions (Golkowska 2014). Cultural components are cited as a number of the major explanation why Qatari women do not pursue careers in several professions that might allow them to occupy leadership positions. Therefore, evaluating Qatar and Norway, the advantages of having quota systems and policies are pronounced. While in Norway, women take as much as 40 % of management posts as the minimum requirement by regulation, in Qatar, solely 3 p.c of females are leaders in enterprise and politics. This realization exhibits the usefulness of setting quotas to improve diversity in leadership.

Conclusion

The concept of leadership and the associated theories have evolved with the changing societal norms, perceptions, and desires. Affirmative actions have allowed women to access training and management alternatives in several components of the world. However, women face numerous challenges in their quest to serve in management positions. Most of these impediments might be removed through insurance policies that reserve a particular number of management slots for ladies leaders. The Norwegian quota system is a good instance of how policies could assist ladies turn into leaders in politics and business. In Qatar, the place such laws do not exist, nearly all of leaders are males, with women assuming conservative roles in society. Therefore, it suffices to conclude that quota insurance policies are helpful instruments for improving diversity in management across the globe.

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