New Textiles: Trends and Traditions Research Paper
“A textile restorer should have good knowledge of textile historical past and a future textile restorer must have an excellent knowledge of and be partially skilled in the machine and traditional Slovak textile techniques.” Well stated by Eva Cisárová-Mináriková, Textile visual artist and lecturer, in her interview. (ULUV.sk.com; About ‘textile, reminiscence, and celebration of creation,)
Textiles are considered an id unique to a community and it displays the lifestyle of the villagers with their superstitions, traditions, religion, and culture, in addition to their relationship with their surroundings and locale. The styles, the weaving techniques, patterns, colours and materials used also differ from neighborhood to community
The subject of the research given by our teacher is ‘Between trend and tradition’ with particular reference to the new textiles: developments and traditions, materials, industries, future fabrics traditional & future textiles techniques. Let’s begin with the definitions of development, custom, and textiles. I even have discovered the most effective definition of the phrases from World Web-Dictionary that explains pattern as ‘the popular taste at a given time’ tradition as ‘an inherited pattern of thought or action’ and ‘a selected practice of lengthy standing’ and textiles as ‘Artefact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting synthetic or natural fibbers’.
Textiles & Farbric
Wikipedia encyclopedia states ‘A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial fiber often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw wool fibers, linen, cotton, or different materials on a spinning wheel to supply lengthy strands known as yarn. Textiles are fashioned by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibers collectively (felt). The phrases material and fabric are commonly utilized in textile meeting trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms. Textile refers to any material made from interlacing fibers. Fabric refers to any material made by way of weaving, knitting, crocheting, or bonding. Cloth refers to a finished piece of fabric that can be utilized for a purpose corresponding to covering a bed’. (Textile – Wikipedia)
Uses of Textiles
Textiles are used for numerous functions for instance; clothes, baggage, carpeting, masking for tables, beds, and different flat surfaces, and so forth. they are also used for industrial functions like medical textiles (e.g. implants), geotextiles (reinforcement of embankments), geotextiles (textiles for crop protection), and bulletproof vests, and so on.
Textiles are produced from different kinds of materials. These supplies mainly come from four sources: animal, plant, mineral, and synthetic. In the past, all textiles were made from natural fibers, including plant, animal, and mineral sources. In the twentieth century, these had been supplemented by artificial fibers produced from petroleum. (Textile – Wikipedia)
Taking it all collectively, we can say that within the textile trade the textile tendencies ought to match the historic background of textile developments of the actual area they are working for and may preserve their cultural heritage. That is why, evolution and development of textile design depend upon religion, commerce, and travel, regionalism.
Types of Textiles
There are two kinds of Textile; conventional textile and industrial textile. The origin of Traditional Textiles and Industrial Textiles hint again a quantity of thousand years in the past but Traditional textiles are considered to be somewhat older than industrial textiles.
Textiles woven by hand are known as ‘Traditional Textiles’ or ‘Woven Fabrics’. The materials used for making fabrics are called fiber. In Bharattextile.com it is stated that ‘some fibers occur in nature as fine strands that might be twisted into yarns. These pure fibers come from vegetation, animals, and minerals. For most of history, individuals had solely natural fibers to use in making cloth. Most textiles are produced by twisting fibers into yarns and then knitting or weaving the yarns into a cloth.
This technique of constructing fabric has been used for 1000’s of years. But throughout most of that point, workers did the twisting, knitting, or weaving largely by hand. With today’s modern equipment, textile mills can manufacture as a lot material in a couple of seconds because it as soon as took employees weeks to produce by hand. However, the textile industry produces one other class of materials particularly known as no woven fabrics.
- Cotton: Cotton is a soft white fibrous substance covering seeds of certain crops. It is used to make blouses, shirts, singlets, shorts, bermudas, jackets, and pants. It can be made into bedspreads, pillowcases, carpets, and curtains.
- Wool: Woollen material is produced from the fleece of sheep. It is used to make sweaters, attire, coats, fits, jackets, pants, and the liner of boots. It can be made into blankets and carpets.
- Silk: Silk is the nice sturdy delicate lustrous fiber produced by silkworms. It is used to make blouses, dresses, scarves, pants, and ties. It can also be made into curtains, draperies, cushion covers, and sofa covers.
- Nylon: Nylon is a strong, light synthetic fiber. It is man-made. It is popular for hosiery and is used to make monitor pants, shorts, swimwear, activewear, windbreakers, bedspread, and draperies. It can be made into parachutes, flak vests, fight uniforms, tires, and life vests, or used as the netting of bridal veils, umbrellas, and baggage.
- Polyester: Polyester is the general name for any group of extensively used artificial products. Polyesters are sturdy, robust materials that are manufactured in a big selection of colours, shapes, and sizes. It is used to make most types of clothing like shirts, running shorts, observe pants, windbreakers, and lingerie. It can also be made into curtains and draperies.’
Industrial or Technical Textiles or Techno Textiles
Textiles which are particularly designed for use in products, processes or services of principally non-textile industries are often recognized as industrial textiles (also termed as non-traditional textiles and technical textiles) and it’s utilized by industrial professionals (like astronauts, navy personnel, etc.)in various kinds of high efficiency and heavy-duty applications from non-textile industries. Industrial textiles started when the canvas fabric was introduced to crusing ships in the ocean and it has brought a remarkable change in textile through the first half of the twentieth century with the invention of man-made fibers.
The Textile Conservation Centre, University of Southampton (TCC), and the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) mentioned about techno-textiles that “They can reply to environmental adjustments, like any other textile. However, specific responses may be built into them, permitting them some ‘initiative’ so that the textiles can react to external stimuli and might change their state and functionality. For example, the material used to make the outfit by Owen Gaster is made of thermochromic polyvinylchloride (PVA) cloth. The targets of this collaborative pilot project had been to develop a framework for the preservation of these innovative materials by conservators for long-term public access and benefit, and to boost their interpretation by museum curators.”
The artwork, design and expertise, and way of life of the 21st-century are fully depicted by Techno Textiles. Textiles are developed to an extent that they do not shield us from extreme weather however can be utilized in space. Such textiles are developed from carbon, steel, glass and ceramics; and other supplies.
Trend, Techniques, and Tradition in Textiles
Aesthetic sense is a should for a textile designer. He should have the ability to look at various types of objects from their environment and nature and to translate his observation into practice without using this graphic. Thames and Hudson’s website stated about Sarah E. Braddock and Marie O’Mahony’s book, Techno Textile
“One simple, and to some, unsettling, reality about any side of the present day artwork is its unwavering reflection of latest life. When the humanities are then merged with progressive technologies created inside state-of-the-art industries, we are introduced with a dynamic new arena, one which displays how we encompass and outline ourselves with what we now have created.
Techno Textiles, subtitled Revolutionary Fabrics for Fashion and Design, boldly and fairly fantastically lays out this merger of art and expertise, on this case, textile know-how, and the way discoveries have been included into not just style, but also into the design, structure, and artwork. Techno Textiles is an artfully offered, glistening mirror of contemporary art and tradition via the revolutionary fabrics that have lately been created around the globe. In his book that has divided techno textile into three sections: Innovations, Transformations, Reference.
In Innovations, the authors focus on the method ahead for fibers and materials, digital textiles, engineered textiles, and textile finishes. It states in regards to the revolutionary development and makes use of of microfibres; regenerated, or pure chemical textiles; and new flexible fabrics, corresponding to metallic, foams and rubbers, and glass and fiber choices. Electronic textiles comprise data on computer-aided designs, virtual actuality, and dwelling in house with examples of old and new spacesuits.
The presentation on the cyborg explains how the miniaturization of technology has impacted garment and product designers. Engineered textiles are exactly that: geotextiles, non-woven materials, hybrid materials, glass, even ceramics. The textile finishes illustrate how thermoplastics, printing, laminates, and chemical remedies can alter the original state of fabric into something altogether totally different and distinctive.
‘Transformations’ then interprets these improvements within the disciplines of style, design, architecture, and art. It is fascinating to image a few of these artificial supplies as actual clothes. Most appear to be the antithesis of our flesh – chilly, metallic, electronic, rigid. But displayed in Techno Textiles, they seem whimsical, futuristic, and more beautifully complex than we could ever have imagined when polyester first got here on the scene. An instance will amuse slide librarians: a 1996 Paco Rabanne dress customary from slide mounts into a three-dimensional outfit complete with earrings!
One triumph of Techno Textiles is the way the authors close the gap between materials and people, between clothing as performance and clothing as artwork, or structure, or science. Equally fascinating are the myriad of other transformations introduced. The design examples vary from Herman Miller chairs to cycle helmets. Architectural fabrics have particular wants that relate to the kind of structure, mobility requirements, and energy makes use of.
A crossover between the architecture and art part appears with a photograph of Christo and Jeanne-Claude’s Wrapped Reichstag, Berlin, in its very elegant, wrapped glory. Art can be represented in murals, sculptures, and, in the book’s last illustration, a woman’s garment, bringing to full circle the human component within constructed materials. (Marie & Sarah 1997) Let’s see the strategies utilized by textile designers in today’s tendencies and traditions.
Traditional Lanna Textiles
In Lanna, the woven textiles or handicrafts are made by the villagers. It is their cultural heritage that has advanced throughout the centuries. They have labored on cotton, silk, and jute textiles. In former times, weaving was thought-about an integral part of community life in the Lanna Kingdom, especially amongst ladies. Looms and different weaving equipment might be present in virtually every household.
Chiang Mai Info Online Articles.com states ‘Textiles were woven for a variety of functions with the kind and shape-dependent on the meant use. Generally, they can be divided into two varieties. The first type contains tube skirts woven for day by day use which were not so finely detailed and have been used for residence wear or for working within the fields. These had been usually made of cotton and had little design or have been plain black or navy blue just like the mo house shirts that are well-known in the north. Apart from clothing, general-purpose textiles had been woven for use as all-purpose cloths, mattress covers, and shoulder luggage, and so on. They have been simple in fashion and carried little or no design.
The other sort contains textiles woven for particular purposes corresponding to those used or worn in merit-making ceremonies, celebrations, and main festivals or for use in numerous rituals corresponding to banners known colloquially as tung. Textiles of this sort were much more elaborate and required meticulous talent in weaving. Different methods corresponding to the continual and discontinuous supplementary weft, twill weave, and ikat had been used to reinforce the brilliant factor about the textile and to indicate off the weaver’s abilities. They additionally display the deep faith the people have of their rituals and ceremonies that are grounded on traditional customs and beliefs.’
It additional states about ‘dyes’ that “A number of vegetation were utilized in making the dyes, however largely they were vegetation that have been simply discovered within the neighborhood of the group. Plants used embrace indigo which gives a navy blue shade, Ordxylum Indicum which produces green or brown when combined with different vegetable merchandise, the ebony tree which gives black, myrobalan wooden which gives a army green colour, sappan which produces purple, Bisea orellra which provides orange, and the wood of the jackfruit tree which supplies a dark yellow colour. The part of the plant used varies and might be the bark, leaves, fruits, and seeds, or a mixture.
Each plant yields a different color and typically the color can change depending on the time of day or the season the plant was gathered. This variation of colour adds to the appeal and fantastic thing about the domestically produced textiles because every bit of fabric has its identification which is sort of unimaginable to breed. Apart from using vegetation and vegetables to provide dyes, insects such because the coccus lacca beetle which yields a red color may additionally be used.’ (Chiang Mai Info Online Articles.com)
Scottish Textile Heritage Online
A new change has been brought in textile design with the introduction of Floral and geometric decoration. Scottish Textiles Heritage Online.com states, ‘as a motif on furnishing fabrics to most individuals will solely bring to mind the “Toils de Jouy” of 18th century France. In some situations, architecture has even been dismissed by its very nature as unsuitable for the flowing softness of the material.
Factories may be discovered on Soviet materials of the post-revolution years celebrating industry2 and unique edifices evoke the (sometimes imaginary) face of colonial splendor on British textiles between the wars. Linear motifs closely related to design and structure usually crop up within the conversational prints of the Fifties, and memento scarves use architectural landmarks subsequent to cancan dancers and the like. Architectural motifs on fabrics have also been used to denote status in the person (and the designer?), which makes for an attention-grabbing twist to the medieval custom of utilizing structure as a means of representing wealth, power, and data, or the eager for it.’ (Scottish Textiles Heritage Online.com)
Turkish textiles designing has all the time gained an edge over a quantity of textile industries. Let’s talk about a few of their textile strategies briefly. The particulars of Turkish textiles as acknowledged in Talks – Textile Techniques.com are given right here:
Turkish weaving – Colours of the Earth
The nomadic folks of Central Asia have at all times been well-known for their lovely weavings, created from the supplies round them. Recently, dyers have rediscovered this heritage of the nomads and are once once more starting to use conventional natural dyes.
Textiles of the Golden Triangle
The “Golden Triangle” where three international locations – Thailand, Laos, and Burma, meet is so-called due to the fortunes created from opium. Traditional garments are a riot of color with gorgeous embroidery, embellishment, and weaving methods. You might be stuffed with admiration for this wonderful work accomplished by hard-working girls in remote and difficult surroundings.
Silk from the Ancient Kingdoms
Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos have long been famous for their silk, and to this present day, silkworms are raised and the silk spun and woven traditionally by village women on the looms beneath their properties. In the past 50 years, an entire revival of this dying artwork has occurred and silk production is now thriving. A have a glance at how and why, and plenty of stunning silk – old and new from these historic Kingdoms. (Talks – Textile Techniques.com)
Textile Design, Textile Arts, Textile Fabric, Textile Traditions in India.com states about Indian Textiles, ‘India has a various and wealthy textile tradition. The origin of Indian textiles may be traced to the Indus valley civilization. The folks of this civilization used homespun cotton for weaving their garments. Excavations at Harappa and Mohen -jo-Daro, have unearthed home items like needles made of bone and spindles manufactured from wood, amply suggesting that homespun cotton was used to make garments. Fragments of woven cotton have additionally been discovered from these websites.’
Modernization in Sportswear
Marie O’Mahony and Sarah E. Braddock mentioned about sportswear of their guide Revolutionary Fabrics, Fashion & Design, “The affect of sportswear on trend is in all places – from high fashion to avenue fashion – and sportswear corporations are now producing designer collections in their own right.
Elegance and performance have by no means been extra excitingly combined or successfully fused. Advances in textile and garment know-how have resulted in ever extra subtle garments and sneakers specifically made. to speed the runner, streamline the swimmer, protect the snowboarder and keep the football participant cool and dry. In ‘extreme’ sports the enthusiasts’ very survival could rely upon the properties of their garments. Leading style designers have been fast to appropriate each the aesthetic and the efficiency of sportswear. In some cases, performance has become the aesthetic.” (Merri & Sarah: ?)
Future of Textile/Fabric Designs
To bring modernization in fabric and textile designing, it’s a should to incorporate the development into custom. Now, we are going to attempt to see the means ahead for textile and cloth designing in a model new era.
Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
It is stated in The Columbia Encyclopedia that ‘materials handled with varied substances to make them impervious to water. Permanent waterproofing is achieved by first coating materials with rubber or plasticized artificial resins, then vulcanizing or baking them. Fabrics so treated lose porosity and lightness and when rubberized are subject to cracking. Water-repellent materials, sprayed with or immersed in artificial resins, metallic compounds, oils, or waxes, tend to remain porous and retain their pure traits.
Earlier therapies, such as tarring the surface (as for tarpaulin) or oiling (as for oilskin), have been supplemented by highly technical and diversified processes and by the strategy of coating the fibers earlier than cloth construction. Some woolen materials, especially Navajo blankets, and tweeds and different napped textiles, are naturally water repellent.’ The concept of waterproof and water-repellent seems to be flourished sooner or later.
Digital Textile Printing Technology
Digital has brought an amazing change not only in textile designing but also in the laborious workforce. Professor Hitoshi Ujiie, Philadelphia University, Director of the Centre for Excellence of Digital Ink-Jet for Textiles comprehensively explained the Digital Textile in his speech in August 2001, “Mechanical production strategies influence each design aesthetics and kinds. In the field of printed textile design, the newest digital fabric printing know-how has influenced the fashion and definition of printed textile design.
Digital fabric printing has had an impact on 2 directions in textile design:
- re-adjusting standard printing design and
- emerging new appears in design.
In the last a quantity of years, digital material printing technology has developed and improved; so that, design firms, mills, and converters are now using these production methods. Digital printing methods have enabled manufactures to provide a digital sampling and strike off of designs earlier than engraving. It is apparent that digital textile printing technology has not influenced the type of the design, however has been utilized to expedite the design process.
A majority of the digital cloth printers for sampling and strike off are primarily based on process color systems to simulate the consequences of spot color-based standard printing. Digital printing know-how saves time for design processes including; design alternation, colorways, and strike off. Comparatively, printed textile design is much more shortly and effectively produced for the market wants than conventional printing processes.
Consequently, stylists can maintain a better level of design quality and aesthetics by regularly refining the design in the printing course of. As far as printing style is concerned, standard printers can produce all kinds of styles, similar to direct, discharge, Devore, please, warp print, etc. In comparison, digital printing expertise has only been developed for a direct printing software. The latest continuous head printer, Zimmer Chromojet, is designed as a spot color-based manufacturing printer. Although this printer is still a direct printing utility, new developments in continuous head expertise might result in extra complicated styles of printing that require extra demanding chemical substances.
Unlike any standard textile printing expertise, the largest benefit for digital fabric printing is in its course of colour software. Preset colours eliminate a need for screens or rollers to be engraved. The design doesn’t require any set repeat dimension nor even repeats itself. At the same time, there isn’t any restriction on the number of colours in the design. Any graphics created for printing on paper may be printed on fabrics.
Photographic and tonal graphics created with tens of millions of colours in Photoshop could be printed on material. The newest improvement of inks, colour management software program, and substrates enable customers to provide a wider shade gamut and finer printing high quality. The addition of extra preset colors of orange, blue, green, etc. to the normal process colors of CMYK, have turn into the brand new normal for process color. At the same time, shade administration software program has recently been developed to manage these advanced color techniques. Drop-on-demand know-how allows doing a short-run manufacturing on a big selection of substrates with minimal downtime.
For this reason, a new look of digitally printed fabrics is emerging in the high-end style design subject. Experimental appears of textile design are rising out there by small print retailers, particular person designers, and students. The present basic design developments together with ideas of shadow, shimmering, translucent, vibration, reflection, moire, optical, netting, blurring, layering, superimposing, and so forth. are immediately seen on digitally printed textiles.
These artistic approaches can lead to successful experimentation, which creates new tendencies and design movements. This permits designers to create profitable designs, which are either Avant-grade or commercially viable. Similarly, silkscreen printing gave artists and designers great freedom of creativity. Designers had been able to experiment with a quantity of photographs on materials earlier than it developed into main textile printing expertise.
Digital textile printing will follow the same path and a new design look with freedom of course of shade utility might be seen on the mass market. At the identical time, currently, many companies have been researching and growing high-performance piezo drop on-demand manufacturing printers. For example, the Dupont Artistri printer can produce higher volumes than most digital printers. Currently, printing pace is likely certainly one of the factors that require extra enchancment in digital material printing, in comparability with standard textile printing. The 12 months 2000 was a pivotal 12 months for the development of manufacturing digital printers and the difficulty of velocity might be solved in time.
Digital cloth printing has not solely influenced visual kinds, but additionally the concept and definition of printed textile design. Because of the development of digital fabric printing, printed textile design has turn out to be extra common in its software and function. For instance, textile designers can create printed textile designs as an enormous contained image with out repeat, just like a graphic banner. In this sense, print design can function as a graphic advertisement instead of a standard textile pattern in repeat.
Fashion or interior designers can create their printed materials more effortlessly. These designers can produce printed textiles on their very own without depending on textile designers by simply working digital printers. The conventional definition of textile design has been dictated by the repeat and shade limitation with a particular textile end-use. In distinction, the new definition of the printed textile design represents printed graphics on fabric in cross-platform functions. However, because of the creative freedom during which anything can be printable and anybody is normally a print designer, it is important to think about the design high quality and aesthetics. (Hitoshi Ujiie: 2001)
We have observed that textile or fabric design always represents the cultural heritage of the actual areas so while designing and setting a pattern a cloth the designer should maintain custom and cultural heritage in thoughts. I would like to conclude my dissertation with Professor Hitoshi Ujiie phrases:
“We predict that shortly, textile printing manufacturing will change from a quantity of major textile mills to many small digital textile printing shops. Further innovation in digital printing technology will have an impact on the type and definition of the printed textile design. Future purposes of digital expertise will turn into more inventive, innovative, and commercially viable for the designer in addition to the consumer.”
ULUV.sk.com; ‘About textile, reminiscence and celebration of creation’, 2008.
Textile – Wikipedia, free encyclopedia. 2008.
thamesandhudson.com, The Tiems Special Supplement. 2008.
Sarah E. Braddock and Marie O’Mahony, 1997,TECHNO TEXTILES, Thames and Hudson, New York, N. Y, ISBN 0-500-23740-9.
Chiangmaiinfo.com, Traditional Lanna Textiles..2008.
Scottishtextilesheritage.com, Article: Architecture into Textiles, Author: Dr Britta Kalkreuter, Lecturer in Art History, School of Textiles and Design, Heriot-Watt University.. 2008.
techexchange.com, Article: The Effect of Digital Textile Printing Technology on Textile Design Styles, Author Professor Hitoshi Ujiie, Philadelphia University, Director of the Centre for Excellence of Digital Ink Jet. 2008.
Bharattextile.com, library article: kinds of textile. 2008.