Mesoamerican States, Empires, Culture And History

Mesoamerican States, Empires, Culture and History Report

Introduction to Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica or better yet, the Aztec empire is described as a very wealthy empire. Tenochtitlan, its capital city is situated within Lake Texcoco and three broad causeways are used to connect it to the surrounding land. Canoes have the ability to navigate to all elements of the populous town through the canals. The palace itself is large with large rooms and apartments enough, in addition to a stocked armory fully. The markets and the temples in the administrative centre city will be the most impressive sights.

The marketplaces are large and various kinds of goods can be found quite. How big is the Tlatelolco market for instance could possibly be described in the sense that certain would take a lot more than two days to walk across the market. Furthermore, the markets were extremely orderly. The temples had been a location for rituals pertaining to human sacrifice. The contrast between the markets and the temples in Tenochtitlan is remarkable since whereas one is experiences peace and orderliness, the other was an epitome of human sacrifice. The two places played a key role in the maintenance of the empire. The markets were a symbol of trade that promoted the functioning f the empire whereas the temples were a place for appeasing the gods and ensure the well-being of this empire (Bentley, Week 1-2).

States and Empires in Mesoamerica

Teotihuacan was initially the largest city in Mesoamerica before the era of conquest and battle of the eighth-hundred years C. E that noticed the decline of the populous town. Subsequently, countryside and northern Mexico less-prosperous but well-arranged forces aimed the declined funds city already. An extended era of empire-developing and militarization started with the episodes on Teotihuacan. The procedure of empire building lasted before Spanish gained entry and power on the region through the 16 th century.

The Mexica

and Toltecs

The emergence of both Toltecs and the Mexica resulted in the unified principle in Mexico. The Toltecs immigrated into Mexico round the 8 th hundred years from the arid property of northwestern Mexico. Their settlement region had been Tula, where they tapped drinking water from the close by Tula River and utilized the drinking water for irrigation. The Toltecs built an extremely strong regional empire with the aid of their powerful and large army. The Toltecs Empire gained the energy to the extent that it had been able to transform the administrative centre city of Tula right into a rich city through tribute exacted from the royal subjects.

The Toltecs established and maintained great relations with the neighboring societies on the Gulf Coastline and the Maya of Yucatan. Nevertheless, the conflicts that emerged during 1125 C.E. coupled with a nomadic incursion from northwestern Mexico led to the destruction of the Toltec empire in 1175 (Bentley, Week 1-2).

The Mexica, also known as the Aztecs, were among the migrants into central Mexico in the mid-thirteenth century. They were commonly perceived to be trouble-makers by kidnapping women from nearby communities. In addition, they seized land already farmed by others. They were occasionally forced to move after their neighbors got tired forcing them to make the move. As a result, they were continuously migrating due to continued conflicts with other communities. They eventually settled on an island in a marshy region of Lake Texcoco around 1345 and it is here that they built their own capital city of Tenochtitlan, which later was transformed into Mexico City by the Spanish.

The Mexica Society and Religion

The Mexica society was highly hierarchal with the military elite receiving public honors and rewards. Males were deemed to be potential warriors. A majority of the military elite originated from the Mexica aristocracy. The military elite was rewarded with wealth and honors and effective warriors obtained substantial land grants and tribute. Women on the other hand did not have a public role; rather their influence was felt within their families.

However, these were honored as moms of warriors greatly. The women didn’t receive any inheritance nor did they hold official positions. That they had to be submissive with their fathers and husbands, who have been viewed as the pillars of the Mexica modern society. The ladies played key functions in market areas and in crafts evidently.

The Mexica were unique people who have unique cultural religious beliefs and ideals before their migration to main Mexico. However, with time, they assimilated other spiritual and cultural traditions like those shared by all Mesoamerican people. One particular cultural practice shared by everyone of Mesoamerica was the pastime played informal courts. In addition, they adopted the complicated calendar used based on the solar year of 365 days and a ritual year of 260 days (Bentley, Week 1-2).

The Mexicans also assimilated some of the religious beliefs that were common to the Mesoamericans. The Mesoamericans and now believed in their two principal gods: Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl. Human sacrifices were offered to these gods for continuity and obtaining favor from these gods. In addition, the priests performed self-sacrifice that entailed piercing their earlobes or penises with cactus. The figure below shows how human sacrifices were carried out (Bentley, Week 1-2).

In this physique, the priest removes a still-beating heart and offers it as a sacrifice to Huitzilopochtli from the victim on the sacrificial altar. The victim at the bottom of the figure is an earlier victim.

References

Bentley. Week 1-2.

Bentley. Week 6.

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