Groups of Cultural Entities in Europe Essay

Groups of Cultural Entities in Europe Essay

Germanic Tribes

This term refers to a group of cultural entities in Northern Europe that are conspicuous for the predominant use of lingual aspects that relate to Germanic languages. These cultural groups date back to the period before the Roman civilization. This term materialized through materials authored by roman intellectuals who sought to demystify the origin and existence of these cultural groups. They viewed them as less civilized and unable to conform to the demands of modernity. In contemporary society, this term suffices about ethnic groups that propagate and actualize Germanic languages. It also refers to people who are culturally and socially related to medieval Germanic societies (Murray 12).

Carolingian Renaissance

This refers to a period that precipitated cultural and social adjustments about the Carolingian Empire. Such changes took place during the eighth and ninth centuries. They embodied pertinent shifts that characterized the medieval revolution. The Carolingian renaissance received support from Carolingian chieftains such as Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. Legal scholars and court orderlies asserted their support and dedication to the realization of changes that were associated with the renaissance. This renaissance revolved around the core ideals and aspirations of the Christian Roman Empire. The renaissance heralded literacy, authorship, legal research, theological interrogation, and overall appreciation of various aspects that characterize human existence in society (Murray 18).


This term refers to medieval schools of thought that characterized instruction about European institutions of learning. Such paradigms of knowledge sufficed in the period beggining1100 to 1700. They sought to offer satisfactory explanations regarding societal expectations on various areas of interest. This reality emanated from the recurrent need for change and evolution within most institutions that bore Christian influence and orientation (Murray 22).

Saint Francis

Saint Francis was an Italian scholar, theologian, and priest who contributed to the development and propagation of Christianity. Through his involvement within catholic ranks, Saint Francis empowered people to enhance change in social contexts. His legacy demonstrates dedication to service and the ability to generate dynamic ideas (Murray 22).


Beguines were religious groups that operated within German territory and neighboring regions. They emphasized monastic lifestyles but did not compel members to take religious vows and pronouncements. Their ideals and aspirations revolved around other successful religious groups within the region (Murray 22).


Petrarch was an influential personality in ancient Italian territory. He focused on scholarly activities and creative authorship. He believed in human empowerment and development through the constant creation of frameworks to devise and propagate skills. He supported humanistic values as the basis for empowerment and knowledge in society (Murray 24).

Marsilio Ficino

Marsilio Ficino was a scholar, philosopher, astrologer, and academician who developed and propagated alliances with contemporaries within his areas of interest. He translated ancient philosophical scripts to expose them to enthusiasts in society. His ideas had an immense influence on changes that characterized the Italian Renaissance (Murray 32).


Zwingli was an individual who contributed to reformation and other related activities in Switzerland. He pursued academic success to enhance his understanding of humanism and its influence on social entities (Murray 32).


Anabaptists are religious individuals who owe allegiance to ideals of radical reformation that took place in Europe. Some people consider it a faculty of protestant beliefs and practices. Historically, they experience persecution and opposition because of their views regard baptism in Christian contexts (Murray 43).

Avignon Papacy

This refers to a period when several occupants of the papacy chose Avignon as their preferred residence. This reality emanated from recurrent disagreements between the papal institution and French leadership. This decision served as a compromise in light of the activities of that period (Murray 48).

Black Death

Black Death refers to a fatal incident that affected millions of people, especially in Europe. This situation commenced in 1348 and ended in 1350. People formulated and propagated numerous theories to explain the rationale and essence of the fatal incident. However, there was evidence of biological poisoning (Murray 52).


Erasmus was an influential personality in ancient Dutch territory. His interests embodied priesthood, pedagogy, theology, and various aspects of social agency. His scholarly undertakings paved way for a clear and informed understanding of human existence in society (Murray 52).

Reformation Day (1517 C.E)

This refers to a dedicated day that recognizes events that characterized the reform and evolution of Christianity. This day is prominent and overly relevant to the beliefs and practices of Lutheran and religious communities that embrace reformist precepts. It recognizes the role of Martin Luther in enabling reformation within Christianity (Murray 52).


This refers to a religious community that has an affiliation with the Roman Catholic Church. They spread Christian values through activities and projects that facilitate constant participation in communal undertakings. Their main concern revolves around promoting progress through the acquisition of knowledge (Murray 57).

Spiritual Exercises

Spiritual exercises are religious guidelines that govern pertinent practices such as meditation, spiritual retreat, and mental rejuvenation. They offer guidance about the realization of the aforementioned ideals and objectives. This guide is attributed to Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Murray 59).

Hernan Cortez

This term refers to a Spanish leader who played an important role in the expansion and retention of its territorial jurisdiction. He was integral in advancing efforts that led to the Spanish conquest in America (Murray 64).

Our Lady of Guadalupe

This refers to a common term that describes and espouses the essence of the Virgin Mary. It alludes to an artistic representation of the Virgin Mary in the Basilica located in Mexico (Murray 64).

Old Believers

This term refers to believers who disenfranchised from the Russian Orthodox Church after reform efforts instituted by Patriarch Nikon. They sought to dissociate themselves from changes that were evident within the ranks of the Russian Orthodox Church (Murray 64).

1492 C.E

This date represents the period that characterized the expulsion of Jews from Spanish territory. This exercise involved systematic efforts that targeted the Jewish community in Spain (Murray 67).

Summary of Chapters

Protestant Reformation

This chapter offers sufficient and informative content about events that characterized protestant reformation. It seeks to relay justifications and motivations that prompted believers to disengage from all forms of doctrinal engagements with the Catholic Church. It propagates facts and realities that created the impetus for disengagement and severance of ties with the mainstream community of believers. Numerous factors necessitated reformation within the church (Placher 34). One such reason was the dawn of individual ideologies that defined human action and behavior in social contexts. Development and propagation of individualism created the need for diverse and dynamic schools of thought. This heralded fresh interpretation of doctrinal texts that were instrumental in the daily endeavors of the mainstream religious institution.

There was also an issue of corruption and numerous inadequacies within the institution of the papacy (Placher 34). Most people felt that the papacy negated its mandate through inappropriate actions. The creation of autonomous state entities also played a key role in fuelling reformation. During the 16th century, a monk named Martin Luther spent long periods meditating about his life and relationship with God. He discovered a clear disconnect regarding his life and overall relationship with God. Such efforts led to hostility between Martin Luther and the Catholic Church (Placher 35). They differed on key issues such as the essence and rationale of indulgences. Indulgences offer a reprieve for believers who wish to hasten their entry into eternal glory. Luther argued that believers could not procure salvation (Placher 36). On the contrary, he asserted the need for upright living according to Christian teachings. Luther also questioned various issues such as celibacy, papal authority, monastic lifestyle, and other tenets that characterize catholic ideals and aspirations. Luther alluded to scriptural teachings to defend his opposition to various institutional practices that govern catholic worship and religious practice (Placher 36).

Colonization of Americans

This chapter examines the issues and facts that characterized the colonization of Americans. It seeks to establish whether such efforts had any effect on the overall wellbeing of American social and cultural settings. This chapter analyzes various impacts that emanated from the invasion and domination by colonial powers. Missionaries conquered America to spread the gospel because they believed in its relevance and influence on humanity (Chidester 23). Colonialism allowed them to amass wealth that was instrumental in supporting their desire to recapture Jerusalem from dominant Muslim control and governance. This philosophy guided all exploits related to Christopher Columbus and surrounding regions. Whenever conquerors found fresh territory, they were required to offer communication that relayed rationale about the invasion of foreign territory.

They had to outline their intentions and benefits that would arise from their conquest (Chidester 23). Conquerors had to explain their allegiance to God who is the custodian of heaven and earth. They had to explain and clarify their desire to spread the gospel. They also had to trace their linkage to apostolic leadership including Peter. They introduced natives to Christian teachings and beliefs. In the case of positive reception, conquerors would allow natives to retain their wives (Chidester 24). However, conversion to Christianity was voluntary based on an individual belief in the teachings of Christ. During instances of resistance and rebellion, conquerors had the right to invade devoid of consent from indigenes. Most rulers were cooperative and often offered support to conquerors(Chidester 24). For instance, the arrival of Cortez received support from the leadership because they saw him as a divine representative. Cortez went ahead to create his empire through various activities that complemented his overall mission and vision. During Spanish rule in America, several tactics sought to entrench their hegemony within the territory. Through such tactics, Spaniards managed to subdue Americans and ruled them for a long time (Chidester 26).


The renaissance period heralded numerous changes and adjustments about human action within society. During this period, there was dynamism and evolution that was instrumental in defining and propagating gender roles and relations. Society witnessed major shifts in areas that characterized the place of women in society. People became more aware of their role and contribution to social, political, and cultural discourse. During this period, individuals agitated for change due to awareness and ability to articulate issues that affected their wellbeing in social contexts (Chidester 29). Numerous factors necessitated transformation and evolution in society. They include the unpopularity of the papal institution, erosion of faith, and the rise of individualism among believers. This transformation also emanated from increased knowledge and awareness regarding doctrinal issues that governed the church. People had exposure to the teachings of ancient philosophers and scholars.

Philosophical literature played an important role in sensitizing people about pertinent issues that characterized existence and cooperation in society (Chidester 30). Plato had immense influence because he implored people to shun earthly pleasures that hinder the attainment of divine favor and recognition. According to historical documentation, reform and evolution began in Italy and spread across other regions in Europe. Most areas that witnessed the renaissance were under the rule of mercenaries and members of the elite in society. This period ushered several scholars and authors who covered pertinent issues about society (Chidester 30). For instance, they dealt with issues that sought to demystify feminism and gender stereotyping. This was an important period because it empowered individuals to take responsibility for their lives. People became more aware of their actions and their effect on individual and collective wellbeing in society. Renaissance seeks to counter adherence to dogma through the promotion of individual values that propagate personal interests as opposed to communal aspirations (Chidester 31).

Light in the East

This chapter offers a candid discussion about divisions that arose between the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Churches. For instance, they disagreed on the essence of the Holy Spirit. There was discord regarding the overall understanding of the role played by the Holy Spirit. This created numerous differences of opinion and interpretation. There was contention over the function of the papacy as the highest leadership organ in the church (Placher 44). There were differences in matters of allegiance and obedience to the institution of the papacy. The political environment also played a major role in this undertaking. Political affiliations formed a basis for interaction and engagement in social contexts. This chapter also talks about eastern orthodox believers. It examines how God created human beings with elaborate plans for their existence in society.

The chapter discusses the role of prayer in enhancing inner peace and tranquillity. By knowing God, human beings guarantee entry into eternal glory. This makes it possible for individuals to understand God’s providence and mercy for his people (Placher 44). The prayer of Jesus presumably harbored supernatural power that helped believers during times of trouble. Such beliefs are instrumental in enabling change and transformation. It is important to understand and appreciate the nature of God because he manifests in creative and unlikely means of communication. Devoid of such efforts, people would find it difficult to relate to God and fellow people. The chapter talks about the omnipresent nature of God, with a special interest in how individuals ought to pursue godly values as opposed to earthly values that could ultimately derail individual goals and aspirations (Placher 45).

Russian Orthodox Church

Russian Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church had a lot in common. They held identical beliefs about practices within the church. However, both religious entities developed monumental differences because of political and social differences that characterized the normal conduct in social contexts (Placher 52). They also failed to agree on the issue of the papacy. The Russian Orthodox Church sought to entrench its position regarding the institution of the papacy. They differed on the overall authority of the pope of Rome. Such aspects were integral to the dissolution of all engagements between the two religious factions. Celibacy also played a role in fuelling discontent among the Russian Orthodox Church (Placher 53). Orthodox believers had immense respect for the pope at all times. They recognized his supreme power and control of the church. Though orthodox believers were overwhelmingly supportive of the institution of the papacy, they rebelled against sentiments articulated by Roman Catholics. They felt that Catholics were overdoing the importance and relevance of papacy (Placher 53).

Works Cited

Chidester, David. Christianity: A Global History. Newyork: Harper Collins, 2000. Print.

Murray, John. Theological Studies. Newyork: America Press, 2004. Print.

Placher, William. A History of Christian Theology: An introduction. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1983. Print.

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