example of war in yemen essay

Example Of War Within Yemen Essay

Background

The crisis within Yemen, which can be considered to be a bad country with damaged rulers, began within the year this year with the trend against Ali Abdullah Saleh, who, since president of the particular country, had brought Yemen for further compared to twenty years. Saleh resigned office this year as per a good earlier agreement in between the Government associated with Yemen and the particular opposition groups. Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi, the previous vice us president of Saleh wanted to unite the particular fragmented landscape associated with Yemen by protecting the threat in order to the country through forces trying in order to revolt from various sides. Yemen acquired to face the particular Al Qaeda risk from the Arabian Peninsula and the particular revolting Houthi militants within the northern area from the country to get many years. The particular Houthi fighters visited the extent associated with sweeping into the particular capital city associated with Sana’ an within 2014 and compelled Hadi toward settling an united govt along with the particular diverse political factions from the country. The particular continuous pressure through the rebels more weakened area, plus on his personal residence and usa president palace witnessing strike by the militant groups, President Hadi needed to resign together with his co-workers in January 2015. This led the particular Houthis to announce themselves as getting taken over the particular Government of Yemen the following 30 days. The Houthis blended the parliament plus installed a provisional Revolutionary Committee, that was led by Prophet Ali al-Houthi. The particular crisis did not really end here, the particular resigned President Hadi, on escaping in order to Aden, declared that will they are still the reputable president of the particular country while stating Aden as the particular temporary capital associated with the country. He or she also sought the particular support of the particular military and authorities from the royal govt to rally within favor of your pet before seeking asylum in Saudi Persia following the rebellion of Houthis devoted towards the former us president Ali Abdullah Saleh. By that period, protest contrary to the Gulf of mexico Initiative got focused in many areas of Yemen, beyond the particular control of the particular government (Glosemeyer).

Internal Crisis within Yemen

Ever considering that both the northern and south Yemen united in 1990, deep divisions continuing to persist in between both the northern and south. Yemen was facing a lot of challenges from militants connected to al Qaeda and separatists within the southern area and rebels associated with Zaydi Shia within the northern area by the calendar year 2011. The politics instability of Yemen needs to do the lot with various internal crises. To get example, the nation has very restricted natural resources, plus the average drinking water availability to every Yemeni citizen each year is as low since 140 cubic metres as against the particular Middle Eastern ordinary of just one, 000 cu meters per calendar year (Heffez). The groundwater table in Yemen is known in order to deplete at the faster pace therefore making pursuing gardening as a sustenance means very tough. Nevertheless , instead associated with growing food vegetation most of the particular farmers of Yemen grow a narcotic crop qat, many Yemeni men are usually fond of gnawing. This makes Yemen incapable of satisfying the meals security associated with its population and makes it dependent on other countries for feeding the people. Even as the outsiders repeatedly hear about proxy wars fought between different factions supported by foreign countries, most of the conflicts occurring in rural Yemen are on water. About 80 percent of conflicts happening in the rural areas of Yemen are attributed to the less water availability for cultivation and drinking. Besides, every year 40, 000 people get killed due to land and water related disputes, which is more than the number of people falling prey to terrorism, says an estimate of Yemen’ s Interior Ministry (Heffez). Obviously, water shortage is one of the reasons why people flee the country in large numbers. During the ancient times, Yemen was known for abundant agricultural production as evidenced in the Bible about the greenery of the Kingdom of Sheba. Hence, Yemen still can hope to restore its past legacy if the rulers concentrate on conserving and managing its precious natural resources and winning back the confidence of its fleeing citizens. Thus, the failure of the local government to win the confidence of its own citizens by concentrating on the internal welfare measures has made the situation in Yemen still worse and prompting outsiders to manipulate the interests of diverse groups within the country.

Saudi Arabia’ s Yemeni Interest

Yemen by virtue of sharing a long boundary with Saudi Arabia, has been popularly known as the back garden of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia, facing threat from its natural enemy Iran and Shiites from the north of Yemen had always perceived Yemen as a friendly Sunni-dominated neighbor. In fact, Bab el-Mandeb, the strait on the southern coast of Yemen gives Saudi access to the Suez Canal and red sea apart from the ports located in the Western part of Saudi Arabia, known for exporting the highest quantity of crude oil. Thus Riyadh’ s interest in the affairs of Yemen is quite evident to the rest of the world. The politics of Yemen has always been one of Saudi Arabia’ s priorities even as the relationship between the two nations has been filled with a lot of complications. Saudi Arabia had a long history of political influence on Yemen that started from the 1930s. Even as the United Nations and Saudi Arabia jointly lobbied in 2011 for the smooth transition of power in the country from the former ruler Saleh to a democratically elected government, the attempt failed miserably. During the past years, Riyadh had significantly influenced Yemeni politics; in 1978 Riyadh played a crucial role in facilitating Ali Abdullah Saleh come to power, and in 1990 Saudi Arabia played its due role in the unification of north and south Yemen. Saudi Arabia also stood behind Saleh while he assumed power back in the year 1978. Saleh’ s relations with Saudi Arabia soured temporarily during Iraq’ s invasion of Kuwait in the early 1990s’ when the Yemeni president declared his support to Saddam Hussein, former Iraqi dictator. During the civil war of 1994, even as the Saudis and other Gulf countries removed migrant Yemeni employees from their nations, the connection between Saleh and Saudi carried on to flourish.

Saudi Arabia’ s i9000 Intervention in Yemen

Saudi Arabia, top a coalition associated with nine Arab nations, started airstrikes towards Yemen on Drive 2015. ‘ Procedure Decisive Storm’ is definitely the codename associated with the attack that will began following the particular reaction to pleas intended for help from the particular worldwide recognized yet still locally fought for Yemeni government directed by Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi. The particular request for assist followed an apparently Iranian funded Houthi offensive targeting the particular interim capital associated with Aden. Subsequently, Hadi fleed Yemen plus left to Saudi Arabia as airstrikes were launched simply by Saudi Arabia plus its allies towards the Houthis plus armed forces sympathetic to former leader Ali Abdullah Saleh, who had been overthrown throughout the 2011 Arabic uprisings. Warplanes through the other 8 allies of Saudi Arabia including Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Jordan, plus Morocco were furthermore actively involved within the operation. The particular United States associated with America has guaranteed logistical and cleverness support for Saudi Arabia and the coalition partners. Nations such as Indian, Pakistan and Cina have evacuated their own citizens from Yemen even as several fled to border Djibouti and Somalia. Saudi Arabia plus its Sunni coalition nations announced the particular end of their own military operations upon 21st April 2015. The coalition offers also declared that getting achieved their armed forces goals, they might get into a new ‘ political phase’ recognized with focus upon counter-terrorism, aid, protection as well as the hunt intended for an unbiased politics solution to the particular Yemeni turmoil.

Why Saudi Arabia started combating the Houthis?

Also the weakened nature of the particular Saudi Yemen border always posed a security threat to Saudi Arabia. Chances of terrorist outfits like Al-Qaeda penetrating Saudi Arabia through Yemen is another reason Saudi Arabia desires to take control of the political system of Yemen (Glosemeyer). The merger of both factions of Al-Qaeda in the year this year exposed Saudi Arabia to free intrusion of the banned militants through Yemen. The infiltration of Al-Qaeda militants throughout Yemen and Houthis rebelling in the northern regions of Yemen literally put the security of Saudi Arabia in peril. When the balance of power in Yemen shifted in favor of the Houthis, Saudi Arabia literally felt powerless, that prompted Saudi Arabia to attack the Houthis with its allies. Earlier, Saudi Arabia was instrumental in sponsoring the Gulf Initiative of 2011 that resulted in Saleh resigning in favor of his deputy and the Saudi-desired Abed Rabbuh Mansour Hadi to become the next president of Yemen. Saudi believed that Hadi along with his allies the Ahmer family would be strong plenty of to take impartial actions and tip the country. But, the series of military and political victories scored by the Houthis disproved the calculations of Saudi Arabia.
The events that led Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar to flee Sanaa and seek refuge in Riyadh following defeat from the Houthis and the subsequent stepping down of Hadi as president of Yemen made Saudi Arabia take a strong stand to fight the Houthis with the help of its allies. Also, a favorite of the Houthis being successful Hadi would show fatal to Saudi Arabia’ s future relations with Yemen besides jeopardizing its vested interests. With the Houthis getting control of Sanaa and deliberating on backing up a sympathizer as the future president had made Saudi Arabia along with most of its neighbors, perhaps in the first time during modern history, helplessly watching the developments in Yemen. Houthis, toward taking the Yemenis into confidence, also have strategic plans to uncover former Saudi-backed officials involved in misappropriating foreign grants, which would show Saudi in a poor light to the rest of the world. This strategy of the Houthis for gaining popularity among the citizens of Yemen who are already affected by mass poverty would have ended up Saudi Arabia losing Yemen to the Shia Houthi rebels thereby ending its role as an essential player in the region.

Yemen – Victim of a Proxy server War

The present day conflict in Yemen, resembling earlier developments in Iraq and Syria, appears more similar to a proxy war involving Saudi Arabia and Iran. Both Riyadh and Tehran seem to blatantly wrestle over each other with regard to establishing supremacy in the region. Saudi Arabia started interfering in the internal affairs of Yemen citing security reasons. Iran had a long time strategic interest toward Yemen which is much logical and simple to understand. The fractious nature and poor governance of Yemen all through has been giving Iran hope to slowly enter Saudi Arabia through the traditional smuggling routes in Yemen. The 35 percent Shia population of Yemen has always given Iran hope for being a potential friendly base for its future operations against Saudi Arabia (Reardon). Besides, Saudi Arabia’ s intelligence officials have always considered Yemen a weakest defense link in the bay and hence an easy target for Tehran to break in anytime and start its operations against the interests of Saudi Arabia. No wonder, Saudi Arabia would always avoid giving a chance to Iran to take advantage of the easier way in to Yemen. Hence fighting the Shia Houthis was Saudi Arabia’ s strategy of keeping Iran away from Yemen and thus the Saudi territory even as the relationship between Tehran and the Houthis is still unclear (Glosemeyer).
Sunni Saudi Arabia had been historically an old enemy of Shi’ ite Iran. But the two enemies always avoided direct confrontation or war; instead, they always fought through their supportive proxies in the Middle East. From the perspective of Saudi Arabia, Iran might use its military strength to influence the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) apart from the Shi’ ite minority population in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Berti and Yoel). Saudi Arabia started the war by launching airstrikes aimed at Houthi rebels in Yemen backed by Iran, Saudi’ s great all time enemy which gradually engulfed the entire Middle East region. In reality, even though the attack was meant to warn Iran, it turned the poorest country in the region into a battleground killing many innocent civilians. The Houthis’ daring response in order to the war actually attracted the interest of world’ s i9000 greatest powers such as the United Areas, Russia and Good Britain. In addition to the immediate assistance from Saudi’ s eight Center East allies, america too has provided intelligence and logistical support to Saudi Arabia. Even because the southern components of Yemen, recognized for frequent Al-Qaeda intrusion, had already been a frequent focus on for American jingle attacks, attack simply by Saudi Arabia simply by killing civilians offers made the problem nevertheless worse. Given the particular current situations, it really is highly likely how the Yemenis, on providing options between international interventions and Houthi rule, are even more probable to negotiate for the accessibility to Houthi rule. Therefore, Saudi Arabia is definitely confronted with the particular challenge of battling the Houthis with out affecting the interior peacefulness of Yemen intended for the safety from the Yemenis and the own Yemeni passions over time.

Importance from the war in order to Saudi Arabia plus Yemen

First plus foremost, Saudi Persia has always recognized Iran’ s appeal to in accumulating nuclear weapons being a danger to the whole Gulf region (Berti and Yoel) Furthermore, most of the particular countries partnering along with Saudi Arabia inside the fighting, such as the United States, desire to do aside with the Al-Qaeda from southern Yemen. However the Houthis plus the Al-Qaeda militants being staunch opponents, the war provides Houthis the chance associated with sanitizing the location associated with the Al-Qaeda, if they happen to be really interested inside the safety and protection from the nation these people want to guideline, snatching power through the erstwhile government known for corruption and dictating. In that sense the war has got the strategic advantage of helping Saudi Arabia fight both the enemies with the help of its allies. As for Yemen, the Houthis may not ensure a corrupt-free regime. Hence, intervention of Saudi along with its allies in fighting the Houthis has the advantage of Saudi helping the nation in future with the post-war rehabilitation works. On the other hand, Al-Qaeda also has got the strategic advantage of expanding its hold and consolidation in Yemen by taking advantage of the chaos prevailing right now in Yemen.
Saudi Arabia has always restricted its involvement in the Yemeni politics by its strategy of quiet meddling. Although Saudi Arabia has been involved in the internal affairs of Yemen right from the old Imamate period and the earlier days of the creation of Yemen, it never launched a major military attack of this stature. Even the current bombing perpetrated by Saudi Arabia along with its allies is meant to target the Houthis and invite them to the negotiating table. But, the Houthis would not be in a position to come to the negotiating table unless Saudi ends its hostilities and ensures peace in Yemen. No doubt, the bombing has resulted in damaging bridges and other infrastructures along with loss of civilian lives. But Saudi, as an aspirant and legitimate member of the international community, may not wish to eliminate the Houthis completely. Rather, Saudi would wish to restore peace in Yemen which apart from having many tactical advantages would increase Saudi’ s image in the worldwide arena as a strategic partner with regard to greatest powers including United States, Great Britain and Russia. Saudi’ s strategy of inviting its allies including United Says to fight the Houthis in Yemen speaks volumes about its intention of inviting the attention of the entire world to restore democracy in war-torn Yemen.

Could the war have been avoided?

Conclusion
I do hope that the presence of a number of power centers in Yemen only means that any arrangement to end the present crisis might not be suitable unless it shows to be a better alternate option against the erstwhile corrupt regimes in the united states. Hence, partially, decentralization and fragmentation seems to be an inevitable option to settle the current Yemeni crisis (Glosemeyer) I also do strongly believe that the way forward right this moment with regard to finding a more amicable settlement to the Yemen problem is to establish a power balancing the interests of almost all the traditional command structures accessible in the particular country. This would certainly include giving expected representation to accurate local, tribal plus religious groups within the new coalition government. Simultaneously, arbitration or an amicable settlement would just come once the nearly all powerful have attained all their targets by fighting their particular long-time enemies.

Works Cited

Berti, Benedetta, and Yoel Guzansky. " Saudi Arabia’ s International Policy on Usa as well as the Proxy Battle. " Israel Newspaper of Foreigh Matters VIII: 3 (2014): 25-34. Print.
Glosemeyer, Iris. " Yemen Without Ali Abdallah Saleh? " Protest, Revolt and Regime Change in the Arab World February 2012 (2012): 27-30. Print.
Heffez, Adam. " How Yemen Chewed Itself Dry. " Foreign Affairs. com. 23 July 2013. Web. 28 Apr. 2015. .

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