example of report on water supply for libya

Example Of Report On Water Supply With regard to Libya

1. Introduction
Libya is counted amongst the driest nations throughout the world, where only their narrow coastal area gets precipitation above 100 mm annually. As a country, Libya has faced several historical challenges in terms of managing the increasing water demand as they suffer from water scarcity. Apart from the deficiencies in water supply, there have been instances reported for pollution in the water supply. It is apparent that water scarcity is apparent in Libya, especially in the coastal areas which are highly populated areas that causes major pressure on environmental, economic and social levels. Within Libya, concentrated of population sprawls into many separated regions and water management policy is needed to ensure acceptable living standards through efficient water supply for present and future generations. There are several options that can be chosen to ensure effective water supply is developed for the Libya (Aqeil, Tindall & Moran, 2012).
2. Water Supply Provisions
For years, Libya has been dependent on desalination process to provide water to their population. With growing population and limited water, Libya has had several reported cases of water deficiencies in the past. The only way with regard to Libya to maneuver towards healthy water supply is through purchasing water from other countries or discovering water within the political boundaries of their country. In 1953, the first signs of freshwater aquifers were found under the Libyan Desert while exploring for oil reserves. Therefore, the two main sources of water supply with regard to Libya are the fresh water resource and the particular desalination project.
2. 1 ) The particular Great Man-Made Lake Project
In the particular year 1953, throughout the oil query in the The southern area of Libyan deserts resulted in the unearthing associated with significant oil stores and large amounts of trapped fresh water aquifers below the particular Libyan Desert. Among the largest Aquifer techniques in the entire world (Nubian Sandstone) is definitely located below the particular Eastern Sahara wasteland and some associated with it spans outdoors their political limitations into Chad, Egypt and Sudan. The particular water aquifer addresses a region associated with more than two million km2 and it has around an approximated 150, 000 km3 of fresh groundwater. The four aquifers discovered has approximated freshwater capacities that will range between four, 800 to twenty, 000 km3. The particular majority of the particular water collected within these aquifers is definitely around 38, 500 to 14, 500 years old plus some from the drinking water pockets are about seven, 000 years of age (Aqeil, Tindall & Moran, 2012). The task contains rivers that will are a system of 4000 miles of 4 michael diameter concrete sewerlines that are smothered beneath the desert sands for preventing evaporation from the limited plus much needed reference.
As a whole right now there are around five hundred, 000 sections associated with pipelines, 1, three hundred wells, 250 mil m3 of excavation and 3, seven hundred kilometers in carry roads. All components utilized in the lake project are produced locally in Libya. The project furthermore includes creation associated with large reservoirs have got pumping stations plus storage controlling the particular flow of drinking water in the Libyan cities.
Right after completion, the drinking water irrigated through the particular water project would certainly help in irrigating around 155, 000 hectares of Libyan land. The biggest advantage of the project has become the overall cost of the project, as it costs $25 billion in overall construction costs. In comparison, the water desalination project cost almost 10 times and presently there were incidents of pollution in water supply.
There is a disadvantage of the water project because the river project uses non-renewable water source and sustainability is an problem for future generations (Aqeil, Tindall & Moran, 2012; The Economist, 2011).
2 . 2. Desalination Project and Floor Wells
Libya will be water scarce and arid country offers heavily relied on water desalination vegetation due to its lack of rainfall and surface water. The desalination plants produce close to 140, 000 m3 of water on a daily foundation, which is driven into the commercial and residential places. The desalination herb utilizes water from ground wells and eliminates impurities and salt content to make it functional for domestic and industrial use. The present ground wells are producing around 600, 000 m3 of water on a daily basis that gets transferred to domestic users dependent in the Libyan cities (Algmati, and. d. ). In comparison to the river project, desalination plants and floor wells cannot combine to produce the same exact amount of water for Libyan. But , desalination plants are long term-projects that are meant for the future generations of Libya, particularly when the freshwater reserves of the extinguished. Every year, Libya keeps adding more desalination projects as they are at the coronary heart of economic and social development of the country.
Having a significant deficit in water supply, desalination plants were 1st considered in 1972s. By 2000, the total capacity of desalination plants has arrived at about 750, 000 m3 on a daily basis. The desalination process includes thermal purification and membrane process that ensures water will be reusable for home use. In the year 2002, the design capacity of the desalination vegetation operable in Libya is around 332, 930 m3 per day. The brand new vegetation are designed to boost the size of the membrane process to ensure the water delivered will be more refined and safer than the past water flow of the plants. In 12 months 2002, desalination stocks in the Libyan water supply arrived at 1. 4 percent. In addition, a plan has been in works since then to develop 13 desalination vegetation having total 705, 000 m3/d installed capacity. The primary concern with the desalination plants have been the high cost of construction and operation as water produced costs Libya close to US$ 2. 69/m3. Economical strategies need to be developed for reducing the production costs if you take into account every phase from the selection of site, design, servicing and operation (Ashour & Ghubral, 2004, p. 215).
3. 0 Recommendation
Currently, the best option in the interest of Libya is to use river projects and maximize the potential of freshwater reserves in the country. But , it is obvious that Libya needs desalination plants and floor wells as the freshwater reserves are unsustainable and overtime are going to extinguished. From another point of see, desalination plants are very expensive for Libya to afford and they are overpaying for water resources. In comparison, water project is a less expensive option that will provide Libyans with freshwater reserves and will make sure utilization of natural resources by the Libyan people rather than outsiders. Finally, there have been significant cases of water pollution and deficiencies caused by ground wells and desalination plants and river project can single handedly provide more water to the Libyan general public than these two options with smaller probabilities of polluted water. Overall, the river project will be an effective short-term solution for Libya, but they need to work on improving desalination project efficiencies and volume of water they can produce to ensure the demand for water of Libyans will be met.

References

Algmati., A. A. (n. d. ). Water in Libya Present Future Goals & Investment Opportunities. Retrieved 1 January 2016 from, http://www.siww.com.sg/pdf/Libya.pdf
Aqeil., H, Tindall., J & Moran., E. (November 2012). Water Security and Interconnected challenges in Libya. Retrieved 1 January 2016 from, http://tinmore.com/pdf/WS121027_WaterSecurityLibya.pdf
Ashour, Meters. M., & Ghurbal, S. M. (2004). Economics of seawater desalination in Libya. Desalination, 165, 215-218. doi: 10. 1016/j. desal. 2004. 06. 024
The Economist. (11 March 2011). Plumbing the Sahara. Retrieved 1 January 2016 from, http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/03/libyas_water_supply

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