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1 Declaration Thesis Sample

Declaration Thesis Sample

I hereby certify this material, which I actually now submit to get assessment on the particular program of research leading to the particular award of BACHELORS OF ENGINEERING ACCOLADES (MANUFACTURING AND STYLE ENGINEERING) is completely my own function and it has not already been submitted for evaluation for every academic objective aside from in incomplete fulfillment for that will stated above.

Signed

Hussein Al-Tuhoo
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I have already been delinquent in the preparing of this thesis to a supervisor, Doctor Maura Kelleher associated with Dublin Institute associated with Technology College, in whose patience and closeness, in addition to her educational experience, have already been invaluable in my opinion. I actually is extremely pleased to Mr. Neill Branigan and Master of science Anna Reid to get helping me with all the lab process as well as the use of laboratory machines and equipment to undertake necessary exams. The aid of the staff members from the Dublin Start of Technology Bolton Street Library plus the encouragement associated with Professor Dr Maura Kelleher, as well as the step-by-step guidance of Doctor Maura Kelleher plus Natalia Pawlak within the Dublin Start of Technology laboratory, have also already been most helpful. The particular informal support plus encouragement of several close friends has been essential, and I would certainly like particularly in order to acknowledge the side of the bargain of Esther Manuel Oni, Omolola Ojewunmi, Femi Cole, Sony Skaria and more recently Michael Jacob, Dayo Olowoniyi, Herman Kinito, Kenny Ibrahim plus Tobi Akande, Abiodun Onasanya. My honest thanks visit Mister. Sean Kean to get his support along with designing the adjusts that were employed for this project.
My parent, siblings, Tolani Oladunjoye, Kazeem, Ayobami, Shubomi, Busayo, have been the constant supply of assistance emotionally and ethical during my undergrad years, and this particular thesis would definitely not have been around without them.

Chapter 1 — Introduction 4

1. 1 Aim 6
1. 2 Goals 6
1. three or more Justification 6

Chapter 2- Literature evaluation 7

2. one Introduction 7
second . 2 Bio-polymers
second . 2. 1 Bio-polymers as Medical products 13
2. three or more PMMA (Poly-Methyl Methacrylate) 16
2. three or more. 1 Definition as well as the properties for PMMA 16
2. three or more. 2 General qualities of PMMA 17
2. 3. three or more Biocompatible and eco-friendly 14
2. three or more. 4 Applications associated with PMMA 19
second . 3. 5 Polymerization processing of PMMA 20
2. three or more. 5 Polymer checks 24
2. four Bone Cement 25
2. 3. one PMMA properties being a bone cement
second . 3. 2 Control of PMMA within bone cement 28
2. 3. three or more Polymerization process within bone cement 29
2. 3. four Compare to n-butylmethacrylate
2. 3. five Conclusion

Chapter 3- Experimental 30

3. 1 Materials 30
3. 1. one Costs
3. two Design of the particular material 30
three or more. 3. 1 Twisting test Design
three or more. 3. 2 Tensile test Design 31

Dimensions in millimeter 31

3. three or more. 2 Compressive check Design 32
three or more. 3 Equipment 33
3. 3. one Ohaus Pioneer 33
3. 3. two Oven 34
three or more. 3. 3 Metal container 34
three or more. 3. 4 Drinking water bath 35
several. 4 Methodology 36
4. 0 Dialogue 43
5. zero Conclusion and Suggestions 66
6. zero References 67

Table1. Typical physical qualities of poly (methyl methacrylate)

Chapter one – Introduction
one. 1 Aim

The purpose of the task is to determine the particular optimum processing circumstances to create high mechanised properties of PMMA.

1. two Objectives

These are usually the objectives that will are needed in order to be achieved regarding this project:

The source associated with the material
Style of the material
Processing and the equipment
The manufacturing process of the material
Testing of the material
Interpreting analysis data
Justification
PMMA (Polymethyl Methacrylate) is a biopolymer material which has great mechanical properties for use in medical fields. There are various kinds of processing of PMMA such as cast and extruded acrylic which produces a variation in properties depending upon the conditions and equipments being used. So ensuring the optimum processing of MMA to produces the PMMA with optimum properties which is already being used in general areas such as; Rear Lights, Windows, LCD screens, etc. PMMA is also used in medical and dental fields such as; bone cement, lens, artificial teeth, etc.
Additionally , the use of PMMA as a bone tissue cement is facing big challenges nowadays. The loosening of the femoral component is the primary contributor to failure of cemented total hip replacements, as breakdowns of the cement can cause the artificial joint to come loose. So by improving the mechanical properties of PMMA, the loosening of the material can be reduced. However, PMMA may be replaced with other materials such as Polycarbonate. Investigating the properties of each material, the material best fit for use in general and medical fields could be verified.

Chapter 2- Literature review

Introduction
This project aims to study the behavior of different plastic materials for different applications with special attention to Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA). This project will study in depth, the possibility of the use of PMMA against different other plastic materials for different purposes using the medical field in particular focus. All of us will study the production steps of PMMA and try to optimize the production of PMMA and the actions involved, so as to enhance the mechanical and physical properties of PMMA.

Polymers

Polymer is an Ancient greek language word, meaning ' many' (poly) ' parts' (meros). Polymer is a long or larger molecule consisting of a chain or network of many repeating units, formed by chemically bonding collectively many identical or similar small substances called monomers. A polymer is created by polymerization, the joining of numerous monomer molecules. Good examples of natural polymers are cellulose, shellac and amber. Biopolymers such as protein and nucleic acids play crucial functions in biological processes.

Common synthetic polymers are Bakelite, neoprene, nylon, PVC (polyvinyl chloride), polystyrene, PMMA (Polymethyl Methacrylate) and Polycarbonate.

2. 3 Bio-materials
A biomaterial may be defined as any material device which may replace a part or used to make a function of the body in a safe, reliable, economic, and physiologically acceptable manner. A variety of products and materials are used in the treatment of disease or injury. Commonplace these include sutures, tooth fillings, needles, catheters, bone tissue plates, etc. A biomaterial is a synthesis material used to replace part of a living system or a function in romantic contact with living tissue.
Since the ultimate goal of using biomaterials is to improve human health by restoring the function of natural living tissues and organs in the body, it is essential to understand relationships among the properties, functions, and structures of neurological materials. Thus, 3 aspects of research about biomaterials may be envisioned: neurological materials implant components, and interaction in between the two in your body.
Figure1. Schematic illustration of biocompatibility.
The achievement of a biomaterial or an implant is highly dependent upon three major elements: the properties plus biocompatibility of the particular implant (Figure 1), the condition associated with the recipient, plus the competency from the surgeon who enhancements and monitors this progress. It can be easy to be familiar with requirements for a good implant by evaluating the functions that bone fragments plate must fulfill for stabilizing the fractured femur right after a car accident, these are usually:
Acceptance associated with the plate towards the tissue surface, i actually. e., biocompatibility (this is a wide term and contains points 2 plus 3)

Pharmacological acceptability (nontoxic, non-allergenic, non-immunogenic, non-carcinogenic, etc. )

Chemically inert plus stable (no time-dependent degradation)
Adequate mechanised strength
Adequate exhaustion life
Sound system design
Proper fat and density
Fairly inexpensive, reproducible, plus easy to fabricate and process to get large-scale production.
The list within Table 1illustrates a few of the advantages, disadvantages, plus applications of 4 groups of artificial (manmade) materials utilized for implantation. Reconstituted (natural) materials like as collagen have already been used for substitutes (e. g., arterial wall, heart device, and skin).
second . 4 Man made Polymers
Synthetic polymers are polymers that will are man-made. Many synthetic polymers are usually manufactured from oil.

Some illustrations of synthetic polymers include:

Polystyrene is the plastic found in Styrofoam, employed for everything through packing materials plus insulation to taking in cups.
Polyvinyl chloride, well known simply by its abbreviation PVC, is used in a lot of building material (and is well-known as being ubiquitous in piping).

Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) is a transparent thermoplastic often used as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to soda-lime glass

These materials are generally not biodegradable, and because they are made from petroleum, once the basic materials for creating them are used up, we cannot produce them anymore.
2 . 5 Radical Polymerization
The most common type of addition polymerization is free radical polymerization. A free radical is simply a molecule with an unpaired electron. The tendency for this free radical to gain an additional electron in order to form a pair makes it highly reactive so that it breaks the bond on another molecule by stealing an electron, leaving that molecule with an unpaired election (which is another free radical). Free radicals are often created by the division of a molecule (known as an initiator) into two fragments along a single bond. The following diagram shows the formation of a radical from its initiator, in this case benzoyl peroxide.
Figure2. Free radical polymerization
The stability of a revolutionary refers to the molecule' s tendency to react with other compounds. An unstable radical will readily combine with many different molecules. However a stable radical will not easily interact with other chemical substances. The stability of free radicals can vary widely depending on the properties of the molecule. The active center is the location of the unpaired electron on the radical because this is where the reaction takes place. In free revolutionary polymerization, the revolutionary attacks one monomer, and the electron migrates to another part of the molecule. This newly formed radical attacks another monomer and the process will be repeated. Thus the active center moves down the chain as the polymerization occurs.
There are three significant reactions that take place in addition polymerization: initiation (birth), propagation (growth), and termination (death). These separate steps are explained below.
2. 5. 1 Initiation Reaction
The first step in producing polymers by free radical polymerization is initiation. This step begins when an initiator decomposes into free radicals in the presence of monomers. The instability of carbon-carbon double bonds in the monomer makes them susceptible to reaction with the unpaired electrons in the radical. With this reaction, the active center of the radical " grabs" one of the electrons from the double bond of the monomer, leaving an unpaired electron to appear like a new active center at the end of the chain. Addition can occur at either end of the monomer. This process will be illustrated in the following animation in which a chlorine atom possessing an unpaired electron (often indicated as cl-) initiates the reaction. As it collides with an ethylene molecule, it attracts 1 of the ethylene' s pair of pi bonded electrons in forming a bond with 1 of the carbons. The other pi electron becomes the active center able to repeat this process with another ethylene molecule. The sigma bond between the carbons of the ethylene is not disturbed.
Inside a common synthesis, between 60% and 100% of the free radicals undergo an initiation reaction having a monomer. The remaining radicals may join with each other or with an impurity instead of with a monomer. " Self destruction" of free radicals is a major hindrance to the initiation reaction. By controlling the monomer to radical percentage, this problem can be reduced.
2. 5. 2 Propagation Reaction
After a synthesis reaction has been initiated, the propagation reaction takes over. In the propagation stage, the process of electron transfer and consequent motion of the active center straight down the chain earnings. In this diagram, (chain) refers to a chain of connected monomers, and X refers to a substituent group (a molecular fragment) specific to the monomer. For example, in case X were a methyl group, the monomer would become propylene and the polymer, polypropylene.
In free radical polymerization, the entire propagation reaction usually requires place within a fraction of a 2nd. Thousands of monomers are added to the chain within this time. The entire process halts when the termination reaction occurs.
2 . 5. a few Termination Reaction
In theory, the propagation reaction could carry on until the flow of monomers is tired. However, this end result is very improbable. Usually the growth of a polymer chain is halted by the termination reaction. Termination typically happens in two ways: Combination and disproportionation.
Combination occurs when the polymer' t growth is halted by free electrons from two growing chains that join and form a single chain. The using diagram depicts combination, using the symbol (R) representing the rest of the chain.
Disproportionation halts the propagation reaction when a free radical pieces a hydrogen atom from an active chain. A carbon-carbon double bond requires the place of the missing hydrogen. Termination by disproportionation will be shown in the diagram.
Disproportionation can also occur when the radical reacts with an impurity. This is the reason why it is so important that polymerization become carried out under very clean problems.
2. 6 Bio-polymers as Medical devices
Biopolymers possess been widely utilized in medicine. The biopolymers have potential uses in virtually every section of the medicine sector. The principle of biopolymer applications is majorly perceived in clinical devices and medicines. For instance, they are used in making implants. The implants have been credited for safety and effectiveness on generating medical devices. The manufacture of clinical devices while utilizing using the polymers possess improved the bio-absorption effect in these devices thus making them efficient. In addition , drugs development while interacting with polymers validates the dose and also elution rates. Biopolymer knowledge will be the best way to address global economic and environmental issues in healthcare, agriculture, water and energy efficiency.
The durability of biopolymers makes them ideal for medical methods. Examples of polymers used in medical arena include; heparin, used in anti-thrombotic effect as coating, polysaccharides are used in dental health care while tartar agents, Chitosan made from crustacean shells and put on wounds for quick healing. Other polymers include alginate chitin, starch, hyaluronic and biosynthesized cellulose that are applied in cosmetic surgery procedures. Creative utilization of biopolymers has assisted to empower several countries in the particular way they may be making use of resources and shifting towards green technical revolution.
Likewise, the health treatment has also accepted biodegradable polymers because a way associated with maintaining and safeguarding environmental and actual physical health. Although the particular polymers are broadly utilized, their problems will also be experienced. A few of the polymers have shown problems adverse immune responses and cultural breathing difficulties. Recently great worries have also been expressed upon how medical products are given the green light by Meals and Drugs Management. This calls regarding medical manufacturers in order to continue concentrating on biopolymers, but they must be aware that not every thing is useful for implants these people ought to become selective.
second . 7 Biocompatible plus biodegradable
During the particular past couple of years, the particular biocompatibility of biomaterials (non-vital material meant to interact along with biological systems inside or on the particular human body) offers evolved right into an in depth, complex, and individual discipline of biomaterials science. Consequently, the number of conditions have been developed or even were adopted through toxicology. Some associated with these terms might be familiar to individuals and clinicians through daily life – for instance , the phrase “ safety”. Protection in relation in order to the evaluation associated with biomaterials means independence from unacceptable dangers. Thus, safety will not are a symbol of the complete lack associated with risks.
two. 7. 1 Description of Biocompatibility
Biocompatibility is a term that is thoroughly used within biomaterials science, but right now there still exists the great deal associated with uncertainty about exactly what it actually indicates and about the particular mechanisms that are usually subsumed within the particular phenomena that each constitute biocompatibility.
During the second Consensus Conference within Liverpool, biocompatibility had been thought as “ the particular ability of the material to perform by having an appropriate host reaction in a particular application”. A biocompatible material may not really be completely “ inert”; in reality, the appropriateness associated with the host reaction is decisive. Earlier, the selection requirements for implantable biomaterials evolved as a listing of events that needed to be avoided, most associated with these received from these events linked to the discharge of some items of corrosion or even degradation, or ingredients to or impurities of the major constituents of the particular biomaterial, and their particular subsequent biological action, either locally or even systemically. Materials had been therefore selected, or even occasionally developed, upon the basis that will they would end up being non-toxic, non-immunogenic, non-thrombogenic, non-carcinogenic, non-irritant plus so on, this kind of list of downsides becoming, by arrears, the definition associated with biocompatibility. A re-evaluation of this place was initiated simply by two important elements. Firstly, progressively more apps required that the particular material should particularly react with the particular tissues rather compared to be ignored simply by them, as needed in the situation of an inert material. Secondly, plus in a comparable context, some apps necessary that the materials should degrade more than time in your body instead than remain consistently. It was for that reason considered that the particular very basic edict that biocompatibility, that was equated with neurological safety, meant how the material should perform no harm in order to the patient, had been no longer the sufficient pre-requisite. Appropriately, biocompatibility was expanded in 2008 since “ the capability associated with a material to perform its desired function with respect to a medical therapy, without eliciting any undesirable local or systemic effects in the recipient or beneficiary of that therapy, but generating the most appropriate beneficial cellular or tissue response in that specific situation, and optimizing the clinically relevant performance of that therapy”.
2 . 7. 1 Definition of Biodegradability
Biodegradation is the chemical dissolution of materials by bacteria, fungi or other biological means. Although often conflated, biodegradable is distinct in meaning from compostable. While biodegradable means to end up being consumed by organisms and go back to substances found in character, " compostable" the actual specific demand the fact that object break lower under composting situations. The phrase is often utilized in regards to ecology, waste management, biomedicine, and the surrounding (bioremediation) and can be now commonly linked with eco-friendly items that are effective at decomposing back straight into natural elements. Natural material can end up being degraded aerobically along with oxygen, or a good aerobically, without air. Bio-surfactant, an extracellular surfactant secreted simply by microorganisms, enhances the particular biodegradation process.
Biodegradable matter can be generally organic materials such as vegetable and animal issue as well as other substances beginning from living microorganisms, or artificial components that are comparable enough to vegetable and animal issue to be place to use simply by microorganisms. Some organisms have a normally occurring, microbial catabolic diversity to break down, transform or pile up an enormous range associated with compounds including hydrocarbons (e. g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pharmaceutical substances, radio stations nuclides, pesticides, plus metals. Decomposition associated with biodegradable substances might include both neurological and abiotic measures. Products that include biodegradable matter plus non-biodegradable matter are usually often marketed since biodegradable.
two. 8 PMMA (Polymethyl Methacrylate)
Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) is really a chemical substance and synthetic clear thermoplastic material acts as an choice for glass produced in the Methyl Methacrylate polymerization. The clear plastic-type from the particular acrylic resin household manufacturing and digesting improvement employ technological polymerization principles plus mechanisms for your efficiency and quality enhancements. Thus, the refinement and manufacturing procedure does not just focus on the particular industry or marketplace needs but additionally wellness, environment as well as the public effects. PMMA can be a compatible materials (not biodegradable).

It has considering that been sold below many different brands, including Acrylic, Lucite, and Perspex.

2. 8. one Definition and the particular properties for PMMA
PMMA is really a rigorous, tough and clear of the botanical family found within paint and eyeglasses. In the synthesis associated with the material, the particular polymer made by mass, solution and emulsion polymerization processes simply by the initiation from the radiations that helps with its extraction from the primary source. The particular polymer material can be cut and signing up for properties by the particular using solvents or even welding that dissolves your invisalign aligner joints. The particular PMMA material dissolves in organic solvents, transmit visible lighting, allowing both refractions of light plus blockage of the particular infrared light. Upon a different viewpoint, the polymer uses up in air to create carbon (IV) plus water. The plastic has a great environmental stability plus a poor opposition to many chemical substances as it easily hydrolyzes forming esters.
On the broad front, more analysis on the particular properties modification unveils, addition of acrylates co monomers within small proportions to enhance grades and extra of butyl acrylates to enhance the product' s strength. Within addition, methacrylic acids are put into raise transition temperature exactly where the glass materials qualities improved. A direct effect property is enhanced during processing by addition of the particular plasticizers as the particular glass transition heat range is lowered. The particular cost effectiveness from the polymer is additional by incorporating filter systems throughout the production procedure in addition to adding chemical dyes to make a decorative colour application.
two. 8. 2 Common properties of PMMA
PMMA is the linear thermoplastic plastic. Main physical features of PMMA are usually shown in Desk 2.

Table2. Typical physical attributes of poly (methyl methacrylate)

PMMA provides high mechanical power, high Young' ersus modulus and reduced elongation at bust. It does not really shatter on rapture. It really is one associated with the hardest thermoplastics and is furthermore highly scratch proof. It exhibits reduced moisture and drinking water absorbing capacity, expected to which items made have great dimensional stability. Both these characteristics increase because the temperature rises. Desk 2 shows several of mechanical characteristics associated with PMMA.

Table3. Typical mechanical attributes of poly (methyl methacrylate)

The reduced water absorption capability of PMMA causes it to be very suitable to get electrical engineering reasons. It dielectric attributes are very good, but polystyrene and LDPE are usually better than it. The resistivity depends upon the ambient heat range and relative humidness. The dielectric continuous, as well since the loss tangent, depends on the particular temperature, the essential contraindications humidity of surroundings and the frequency.

Table4. Common electrical properties of poly (methyl methacrylate)

The thermal stability of standard PMMA is only 65 ° C. Heat-stabilized types can withstand temperatures of up to 100 ° C. PMMA can withstand temperatures as low as – 70 ° C. Its resistance to temperature changes is very good.

PMMA is a combustible material, which continues burning even after the flame will be removed.

PMMA’ s physical and chemical properties make it suitable with regard to various applications.
The properties such as its being transparent strong, durable and transparent make it suitable in the manufacture of rear-lights and lenses with regard to glasses. The versatility of PMMA also makes the material applied in the production of various instrument clusters for the motor-vehicles.
The strength of the material combined with its water absorption capacity make the material to useful in the manufacture of windows, sanitary ware, furniture, and LCD screens, among others (Bronzino, 2000). The material’ s resistance to the exposure of sunlight and the effects of UV rays has made it useful in the coating of polymers. The above will be due to its stability when exposed to various environmental situations such as dampness and sunlight.
Figure4. Dental restorations made of PMMA
In addition, PMMA stability and purity have also been used in dental and medical fields. Its compatibility with the human tissue has also been exploited in the manufacture of intraocular lenses. Further, it will be applied in the bone cement to fix implants. The transparent appearance of PMM makes is suitable for its use in patient’ h teeth and production associated with ocular prostheses. Consequently , the physical plus mechanical properties PPMA combined with the particular properties of various other polymers boost the produce of better components with maximum mechanised properties.
two. 9 Polymerization digesting of PMMA

In general, Polymerization digesting of PMMA is dependent on two elements:

Amount associated with initiator per grms of monomer are now being used (For every single 20 cm3 associated with MMA 0. 1-0. 3 g associated with initiator must end up being used).

The reaction starts on 100 ° M and above.

However, there are usually some other elements that will depends upon the type associated with processing are getting used during polymerization. Cast acrylic plus Extruded acrylic would certainly be the many common sorts of procedures that have already been utilized in industrial. Extruded acrylic mostly utilized in the great production mass industrial sectors.
2. nine. 1 Cast digesting [Used as experimentally]
Cast acrylic, because the name suggests, can be manufactured by the process whereby MIXED MARTIAL ARTS (Methyl Methacrylate monomer) liquid and quantity of initiator can be pumped into the mould made through two sheets associated with glass. The mold or monomer can be then submerged inside warm water as well as the process of polymerization happens as proven in Figure five.
Figure5. Digesting of cast acrylic
As well as the above ensemble acrylic sheets bring themselves to relieve of fabrication. Furthermore, cast acrylic whenever laser cut create a highly polished advantage, thus reducing finish times when fabricating. Furthermore, when popular wire line twisting, drape or vacuum cleaner forming cast fat sheets are even more malleable / flexible than extruded fat sheet.
two. 9. 2 Extruded processing [High creation mass industries]
Extruded Acrylic sheets are usually produced by a continuous creation process. Acrylic or even PMMA pellets are usually fed from the containment silo in order to a feed hopper above an extruder line. The pellets are fed to the extrusion barrel and so are driven through the particular barrel by the single or two screw auger program.
Figure6. Refinement of extruded acrylic
As the pellets progress through the particular heated zones associated with the extruder clip or barrel the heat boosts until the pellets melt into the molten mass.
This molten bulk is pushed forwards into a cone-shaped / cone designed die which after that widens out straight into the die lip area. The molten bulk, under pressure in the screw-drive, reaches the particular die lips plus pushes outwards across the die lips to make a molten sheet. The particular height / difference of the pass away lips is fixed slightly bigger than the particular thickness necessary for the particular finished sheet. This particular continuous band associated with molten acrylic piece is then handed down through sets associated with cooling rollers, which might emboss a design / finish on to the sheet because it cools or might just produce a regular gloss / simple finish.
Since the sheet advances down the haul-off line it provides cooled sufficiently in order to be edge cut, cut towards the last finished length needed and a shielding P/E film can be applied. Finally, the particular sheets are palletized and wrapped to get dispatch.

Extruded acrylic VS Ensemble Acrylic

The evaluation between two ways of acrylic processing is really as follows.
Chemical substance Resistance
Cast fat is more proof to exactly the same solvents.
Laser cutting
When laser reducing extruded acrylic, you will have a burr on a single side of the particular part. On the particular cast acrylic generally there are almost simply no burrs. The sides on extruded fat parts can appear a little different based on the path of the fat extrusion.

Laser engraving

The Laserlight engraving will end up being seen on extruded acrylic which appears matt gray. Upon the cast fat, it will appear matt white.

Heat bending plus thermoforming

A bed sheet of extruded fat can, because associated with the acrylic extrusion direction, behave in different ways depending on the particular bending direction fairly to the extrusion. With cast fat, it makes simply no difference.
Whenever cast colored fat is heated intended for thermoforming or high temperature bending the colour can change. Matt-colored surfaces can turn out to be clear and apparent surfaces can turn out to be matt. Additionally , the particular shade of colour can change. Toss acrylic is tougher to bend and shape.

Thickness tolerance

Sheets associated with cast acrylic differ more in width. A cast several mm acrylic bed sheet varies +/- 15%, while an extruded sheet only differs +/- 5%. The particular dispersion inside the patience also appears to be much less on extruded bedsheets.

Scratch-resistant

Cast acrylic it a lot more scratch resistant when compared to the way extruded acrylic.
Flame polishing
Toss acrylic is tougher to flame enhance.
Colors
Toss acrylic is created in a variety of colour and thicknesses. The particular color selection much more limited for extruded acrylic. If one particular orders a particular color from the supplier, it can inside most cases end up being cast acrylic.

Tension

There is certainly more tension inside extruded acrylic.
2. 10 PMMA challenges with Polycarbonate
Acrylic has a big challenges with Polycarbonate (Lexan) and glasses in Lenses and other fields in industrial and that kind of comparison was taken out from:
Strength (Acrylic and Polycarbonate are both half the weight of glass and yet both of these plastics are much stronger than glass).
Light & Clarity (Acrylic also has better clarity than glass, with a light transmittance of 92 percent “ Not yellowing”. Where Polycarbonate has a light transmittance of 88 percent.

Durability (Acrylic is more likely to chip than polycarbonate because it is less impact-resistant).

Cost (Polycarbonate is more expensive than acrylic. It tends to cost about 35% more).
Laser cutting (Polycarbonate becomes yellow and burnt when laser cut. Foils up to 0. 5 mm can be laser cut to produces overlays. Laser cutting sheets is just not recommended).

Colors (Color selection of polycarbonate sheets is limited).

Scratch robustness (Polycarbonate is easier to scratch, but can as with acrylic be delivered with a hard-coated surface).
Strength (Polycarbonate has a higher tensile strength).
2. 10 Bone Cement
Bone cement has been attributed as a successful anchor to repair joints such as hip, knee, and shoulder joints. The chemical combination of bone cement is Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA). The excellent compatibility of bone cement to the body tissue made it possible for the component to be used for anchorage. Bone cement is considered reliable for clinical practices and has proven long survival rate for artificial hip and knee joints. PMMA material in the bone cement is the most enduring material during the orthopaedic surgery process. Nevertheless , there is the great concern in order to revitalize its mechanised and chemical attributes in order in order to boost the clinical functionality.
Figure7. Synthetic hip joint substitute [22]
Figure8. Synthetic knee joint substitute [20]
PMMA concrete has recorded possible pitfall thus the particular need for modifying its mechanical attributes. The major failing recorded is the particular loosening and shrinking that comes from harm to the monomer-mediated bone. The shrinking is results through the end-polymerization procedure that compromises the particular bone and concrete interface. These downfalls are attributed in order to the disregarding associated with crucial elements whenever working with PMMA. To be able to attain solid bone cement, methyl Methacrylate monomer need to be permitted to polymerize at room temperatures. Most clinicians are usually tempted to change the particular mix constituents whenever preparing the bone fragments cement that boosts the maximum setting temperatures thus reducing the particular comprehensive strength. Changing the mix written content reduces the plastic chain concentration plus introducing multiple tension risers.
It is best for clinicians to consider care when executing unpredictable alteration simply because they distort the mechanised properties of the particular bone cement. Inside addition, the function of nano hydroxyapatite particles on mechanised properties of PMMA should be regarded simply because they contribute in order to the comprehensive power of the bone fragments cement. Addition associated with 2. 5% associated with HA nano-composites boosts the elongation break associated with PMMA as properly as enhancing the particular maximum bending power value. These ST?LLA TILL MED ETT nano-composites enhance the particular biocompatibility of the particular cement simply because they have got a higher tensile and toughness if they reinforce methyl Methacrylate polymers. Polymethyl Methacrylate is brittle plus notch sensitive especially when utilized for complete hip replacement. The modulus of suppleness is tested with the tension the bone can hold back.
Materials required for fixation should not degrade when responding to corrosive conditions. The manufacturing of PMMA cement should consist of properties that enable fabrication in optimum design. Clinicians ought to note that polymers have poor adhesive properties, for this reason, when using PMMA cement regarding total hip alternative; they ought to safeguard the patient from your deleterious effect of the exothermic polymerization process on the surrounding tissues. Implanted PMMA needs to be minimal in volume in a bid to possess an appropriate structural configuration that can withstand intrinsic and extrinsic makes during heat diffusion. In addition, the PMMA should possess enhanced fibres that will control its elasticity structure.
Figure. 9 Difference between unloosening and loosening bone cement
The drawback to using bone cement is it may weaken with time and pieces of cement can break off, potentially causing problems such as a breakdown of the cement can cause the artificial joint ahead free, which may prompt the need regarding another joint alternative surgery (revision surgery). In that case from that project based on trying to reduce the amount of loosening that causes by the time. That could be solved by increase the strength and young' t modulus of PMMA in the side of trying to get the maximum mechanical properties by approving the best situation of processing polymers.
Hip alternative is an operational process in which the hip shared substituted by a prosthetic implant. Its surgery performed as a hemi (half) replacement or a total replacement (THR). Hip and knee joint substitution orthopaedic surgery is implemented to alleviate arthritis ache or in a number of hip fractures. The total hip replacement (THR) comprises of substituting both the femoral and acetabulum head while hemiarthroplasty substitutes the femoral head.
Figure 10. sample of cementing
Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a medical appliance, projected for implant purposes constituted from Polymethyl Methacrylate, methyl Methacrylate, copolymers with Polymethyl Methacrylate, or esters of methacrylic acid and polystyrene. PMMA intended for utilization in arthroplastic processes of the knee, hip and extra joints for the fixation of polymer prosthetic implants to an active bone.
2.11.1 Processing of PMMA as a bone cement
The process of PMMA bone cement is a self-curative, two constituent mechanisms consisting of powder and liquid constitutes. The liquid part contains the accelerator, the inhibitor, and the monomer. The powder part has the polymer, initiator, and radio-pacifier. PMMA is a brittle, notch responsive substance. In the circumstance of THR, PMMA relative features are essential. The feature of modulus of elasticity is tested in tension and estimate 2400 MPa. The amount is approximately ten folds lesser than that of the adjacent cortical bone and 100 folds below that of the metal trunk. For this reason, it acts as an elastic interface between two inflexible layers. In addition, cement is less fragile in vivo compared to laboratory testing results, turning more elastic when heated. The process occurs at the glass changeover heat (Tg) that ranges with structure of the monomer and the molecular weight. Cement saturated with liquid in vivo, which minimizes the Tg and, for this reason, has a plasticizing property. Polymers show properties of both viscous liquids and elastic solids under circumstances of low strain and for this reason illustrated as visco-elastic. At a molecular stage, comparatively weak non-covalent interfaces exist between neighboring polymer side-chains, plus they breached, result in visco-elastic properties.
The process of PMMA bone cements leads to the polymerization process. Polymerization process of the bone cement involves an exothermic effect, which happens as the cement hardens in situ. The discharged warmth may break bone or tissues neighboring the implant. Insufficient fixation or unexpected postoperative incidents may distress the cement-bone bond and result to micro motion of cement touching bone facade. A fibrous tissue section may expand between the bone and the cement, and loosening of a section of the bone occurs leading to implant malfunction. Long-term monitoring advised for every patient on a recurrently scheduled condition. The surgeon must be acquainted with the features, handling distinctiveness, and usage of bone cements. The knowledge is essential due to the fact the handling and curative properties of this bone cement differ with moisture, temperature, and combining method, they are best resolution by the surgeon' h tangible experience.
2. 11. 2 Polymerization process in bone cement
The polymerization process starts by the conversation between the initiator and the activator, offering a free element that react with the monomer. Around the other hand, the solidified polymer can protect a firm fixation of the cemented bones. Even though acrylic bone cements extensively applicable in orthopedics, a number of drawbacks associated with their utilization. The residual monomer accumulates on the body and results in fat embolism. The exothermic property of the polymerization procedure leads to a potential consequence of neurosis of the neighboring tissue. The most significant shortcoming is aseptic loosening such as aseptic loosening implant during the cementing process. The basis of aseptic loosening could be biochemical or mechanical. Biochemically, torn debris of the polyethylene constituent could transfer to the bone cement boundary and cause an inflammatory reaction, resulting to osteolysis and deteriorating the implant edge. Mechanically, cyclic weight of the implant result to fatigue crack of the cement. In order to enhance PMMA fixation, a potential approach is to avoid cement crack by increasing the mechanical elasticity of the cement. Researchers have engineered bone cement with advanced bonding power and compressive modulus than usual PMMA, combining a bisphenol-A-glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)-based adhesive impregment with glass bioactive ceramics. Another strategy takes advantage of composite by strengthening PMMA using bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite (HA), which incorporates strengths and elasticity with bioactivity.
2 . 12 Polymers tests
Tensile, compression, density and melting temperature test are the standard tests that determine the quality of the polymer materials. Tensile test measures breakability properties such as modulus, strength, elongation and strain quality of the polymers. Compression test determines ultimate compressive strength and deflection and density test determine the density of the material. Melting temperature test determines thermal behavior of the material.

Chapter 3- Experimental

3. 1 Methodology

In order to produce PMMA, some steps need to be followed.

PMMA is generally made by mixing 20 cm3 of Methyl Methacrylate monomer with 0. 1-0. 3 g of Lauroyl peroxide initiator. It needs to be poured into a steel or glass mould and heated up by submerging the mould into a water or oil bath at 100 ° C. Once the glycerine stage has been shaped, the mould is put into a cold water bath.
3. 2 Source of the material
The types of material that would be used for this project is Methyl Methacrylate [monomer] and 1, 1’ -AZOBIS (CYCLOHEXANECARBONITRILE) [Initiator] and Lauroyl peroxide (Luperox) [Initiator]. The materials are not available in Dublin Institute of Technology, so they would be purchased from SIGMA-ALDRICH.
3. 3 Design of the material
The design of the material depends upon the type of the test, because each test has an unique set of standard specifications that they need to follow in accordance with the ISO standards of polymer specimen tests. The ISO standards may be found in DIT Bolton street library. The library staff knows how to get to each specific ISO standard. The design would be made by SOLIDWORKS then saved as STL file and uploaded into the Shapeways company website so that it would be shipped in approximately 10-15 business days.
3. 3. 2 Tensile test mould Design

According to ISO 527-2-2012

Figure11. Tensile test specimen [ISO 527-2-2012]

Dimensions in mm

According to ISO 604-2010 The preferred dimensions are:

According to IS0 60-1977 (E) the design of the mould would be according to the dimensions shown below. All dimensions are in mm unless otherwise stated.
Figure14. Density test mould design by solid works (mm)
3.4 Manufacture process equipment
3.4.1 Ohaus Pioneer
The Ohaus pioneer is designed for basic routine weighing of a variety of laboratory, educational and industrial applications. It has the right combination of performance and features.

Density test using Archimedes principle.

Figure15. Density measuring equipment
3.4.2 Hot plate

Hot plate is used to heat up the solution to about 100 °C to start the reaction.

Figure16. Oven (Heat up the temperature)
3.4.3 Steel container
Steel mould is used as an initial mould for this project by submerging the reaction solution into a water bath. As the reaction proceeds and the surface starts to solidify, the solid surface is taken out of the mould.
Figure17. Steel Mould
3.4.4 Water bath
Water bath is used to heat up the reaction solution to such a temperature so as to start the reaction. The reaction usually starts at about 100 °C.
Figure18. Water bath
3.4.5 Ultrasonic
A high frequency generator produces around 35000 oscillations per second which are transferred into the cleaning solution and made to vibrate. The energy density of the sound is so high that cavitation starts to take place. Innumerous tiny vacuum bubbles develop and burst in microseconds due to pressure and suction.

Advantages

The machine is easy to use.
It saves time and cost.
Universal and compact.
Low maintenance.
Fast and highly efficient in cleaning.
Figure19. Ultrasonic
3.4.6 Oil bath
Oil bath is the equipment used to heat up the reaction solution to a temperature of about 100 °C to start the reaction. The difference between a water bath and an oil bath is that the oil bath can get the temperature to rise instantly above 100 °C and the reaction starts to occur.
Figure20. Oil bath
3.4.7 Lloyd instrument
The Lloyd instrument machine is used for multiple purposes. It may be used to determine tensile strength, compression, flexure, friction, tear, ductility, shear strength, etc. Lloyd instrument is an established manufacturer of material testing machines, software, polymer testing instruments and texture analyzers.

Material testing machines up to 150 kN

Material testing analysis and control software
Grips and fixtures
Safety shields
Software customization service
Figure21. Lloyd instrument
3.5 Experimental processes

The experiments were performed in room 391 (Chemistry Lab) with Lab technical assistant Anna Reid.

3.5.1 Initial Process

The beaker was

submerged into the water bath at 100°C (1.5hrs)

The solution was left at room temperature (48 hrs)

Figure22. Initial process
In this experiment, a huge amount of initiator was used because 0.08 g of AIBN initiator did not initiate the reaction, and an unknown amount of Lauroyl peroxide was added. After 48 hours, a nice solid PMMA plastic was formed at the bottom of the beaker, but it was not perfectly transparent. Otherwise, most of the MMA evaporated during the heating of the reaction solution.
Figure23. First part of PMMA obtained experimentally
As the first sample was successfully obtained, melting point temperature was tested to check whether it was lying in the theoretical range.
Figure24. Melting point temperature testing
The first PMMA sample melted around 125 ° C which was within the expected theoretical range (about 135 ° C from Table4). So the thermal properties of the first sample were acceptable.
3. 5. 2 Second Process

100g of MMA was poured into a steel container

The steel container was
submerged in the water bath at 90° C (1. 5hrs)

The solution was left at room temperature (48 hrs)

0. 08g of Lauroyl peroxide initiator was added into the solution
Figure25. Second process
In the process, measurable amount of Lauroyl peroxide initiator was used to see if it kick-started the reaction. Also the solution heated up with a lower temperature of less than 100° C to prevent the solution from being evaporated. At the end of the experiment, most of the MMA monomer evaporated and a movie of PMMA was formed which was not solidifying.
3. 5. 3 Third Process

200g of MMA was poured into a steel container

The steel container was put at
hot dish 70° C water bath in regarding 70° C (4. 5 hrs)
zero. 08g of Lauroyl peroxide initiator had been added into the particular solution

The option was left with room temperature (48 hrs)

In this particular process, a lot of MIXED MARTIAL ARTS was utilized to decrease the amount associated with MMA evaporation. The particular reaction was transported out at the lower temperature in order to prevent MIXED MARTIAL ARTS from being evaporated. However, the outcome was pretty significantly the same, as well as the specimen still appeared to be the particular same as the prior one, although a lot more increased amount associated with MMA was utilized with lesser heating system.
Figure26. 2nd process specimen (Left) and Third procedure specimen (Right)
3 or more. 5. 4 4th Process

2g associated with Lauroyl peroxide

250g of MMA had been poured into
the steel container plus Initiator was additional into solution protected by Aluminum foil

The steel pot was put into

oven at 70° C the drinking water bath in regarding 80° C (2 hrs)

The alternative was left on room temperature (48 hrs)

Figure27. 2 solutions from the particular fourth process
The particular same procedure had been used for AIBN initiator to check out if different initiators gave different outcomes. The point associated with using Aluminum foils was to avoid the escape associated with the evaporated MIXED MARTIAL ARTS and to make sure that the temperature continues to be uniform throughout the particular reaction solution. This particular experiment produced the perfectly solidified PMMA. But this period, bubbles developed throughout heating from the alternative and were cornered the solid item.
Figure28. 2 Parts Prototype associated with the fourth process
Figure 28 displays two different individuals with the use of Lauroyl peroxide initiator (Left) plus AIBN initiator (Right) respectively.
3 or more. 5. 5 Doctor. John Colleran interview
An interview along with Dr. John Colleran, an organic biochemistry and biology lecturer from N. I. T, on Kevin Street had been organized. The goal of the job interview was to check out the methodology associated with processing so that will the unwanted outcomes could be set.

The recommendations that Dr. Colleran had were:

[newline]

Try to find an initiator that does not release gases (O2 or N2).
For every 20 cm3 of MMA, 0.1-0.3g of initiator must be used.

Remove dissolved O2 in monomer before the reaction.

Use a closed mould.
Use an oil bath on the hot plate.
Immerse beaker in oil bath at 100 °C.
Point 1 could not be attempted because of the initiators being used. AIBN or Lauroyl peroxide would always release gases during the polymerization reaction. So, unfortunately, no initiator could be found that did not release gases.

Point 2 was taken care of, and the recommended amount of initiator was used with every 20 cm3 of the monomer.

Point 3 was taken care of, and an Ultra-Sonic device was used to remove the dissolved O2 out of the monomer before the reaction was started.

Point 4 was partially implemented by using an aluminum foil which served the purpose of using a fully closed mould.

Point 5 and 6 was implemented by using a water bath in place of an oil bath because of the fact that water boils at 100 °C and it could not take the reaction solution to a temperature near 100 °C, whereas, the oil bath made sure that there was a homogenous heating of the reaction solution and it took the solution to a temperature of above 100 °C so the monomer and initiator could react easily.
3.5.6 Fifth process
This process was carried out after implementing the findings from the interview with Dr. Colleran.
The example of PMMA had been formed in the particular bottom of the particular test tube plus it looked apparent with good openness and surface finish off as shown within Figure 29. The particular part would after that be used intended for some tests in order to figure out the particular general properties associated with the part.
Figure29. Fifth procedure sample
3. five. 7 Sixth process
Figure30. Stainless metal moulds according in order to ISO specifications
Within this process, the particular moulds that had been designed according in order to the ISO regular specifications were utilized as shown within Figure 30. Exactly the same methodology was utilized in the Fifth procedure, but instead associated with leaving the option to solidify within the test pipe, it was instantly poured into the particular moulds because it obtained to the glycerine stage. Otherwise, the particular moulds could not really be submerged straight into the oil shower because the essential oil would flow beyond the aluminum foil to the PMMA solution. That' s why, check tube was utilized until the glycerine stage.
Since the moulds had been left in sizzling plate for approximately two hrs at beneath 100 ° G, the sample had been getting the exact same results as within the 2nd and the particular third process exactly where the sample associated with film at the particular bottom from the mold was mostly evaporated.
3. five. 8 Seventh process
This process had been used to confirm the methodology utilized in the 5th process by which check tube was utilized as a mold instead of the stainless steel mold which did not really provide a satisfying surface area finish of PMMA.
Figure31. 7th process part
Since you see within Figure 31 over, the test got very good surface finish. The sample would be cut into 4mm thickness to perform some tests on it and compare it with other commercial samples which are processed in a different way such as Extruded process of acrylic.
3. 6 Laser cut part
A plate of cast Acrylic (100 * 60) cm2 and 3 mm thickness was ordered from CENTRAL TECHNOLOGY SUPPLIES LTD. The reason for ordering was to verify the properties of our experimental cast acrylic specimen with that of the commercial one. So, it would be compared with the extruded part which will be available in materials lab. The reason was the inability to acquire PMMA with stainless steel moulds because the answer was easily evaporating from the moulds. The use of glass test tube produced a very useful specimen but the problem was the spherical shape of the final specimen and the specimen could not be used as a cast acrylic specimen in the tensile test, so the cast acrylic commercial product was ordered.
The specimen was cut into pieces by plastic cutter to fit in [Zing Laser Cut] machine as shown in Figure 32 which has the ability to accept the maximum dimensions of (60 * 40) cm2. So , the specimen was cut into two halves by plastic cutter as shown in Determine 33 with approximately (50 * 40) dimensions for each piece.
Determine 32. Zing Laser Cut machine
Figure33. Cast acrylic commercial part with cutter

The part was designed according to ISO 527-1: 2012 by SOLID WORKS in DWG file format as shown in Figure 34.

Figure34. SOLID WORKS design of commercial part for tensile test
After sending the SOLID WORKS DWG file into the Zing Laser Cut machine, the specimen begins to take the shape as shown in Figure 35 which was expected and it could be compared with extruded acrylic specimen available in materials lab for tests.
Figure 35. Laser cut (cast acrylic) part

Chapter 4 – Results

4. 1 Tests and analysis
Tensile, compression, density and melting temperature test are the kinds of test that would use to do a comparison between parts of Acrylic. Tensile test measures breakability properties such as modulus, strength, elongation and strain quality of the polymers. Compression test determines ultimate compressive strength and deflection and density test determine the density of the material. Melting temperature test determines thermal behavior of the material.

Kind of Tests:

Density Test
Compression Test
Tensile Test
Melting Temperature Test
Parts to be in the tests:
Extruded Acrylic [Thickness= 4mm Height= 230mm Width= 9mm] available in materials lab.
Cast Acrylic (Laser Cut) part [Thickness= 3mm Height= 168mm Width= 8mm].
Experimental Cast Acrylic [Thickness= 4mm].
4. 2 Density test
Density is a measurement of the amount of matter in a provided volume of a substance or material. Density is a physical characteristic, and it is a measure of mass per unit of volume of a particular substance or material. Density is an important property which can be used to identify a substance.

For the density test, the adhering to process had in order to be performed.

Measure the examples that will become useful for the denseness test by making use of the weighing gadget that is offered within the lab.
Figure39. Samples measurement

Fill the graduated canister with desired quantity of water yet make sure the particular sample can become immersed.

Measure the amount associated with water in the particular graduated cylinder plus record the worth.
Drop the trial in to the particular graduated cylinder; furthermore guarantee the sample will get immersed.
Gauge the embrace degree of water as the sample is within the graduated canister.
4. two. 1 Extruded polymer-bonded sample
Using the 10cm3 graduated canister, pour some quantity of water within the graduated cylinder whilst making sure that will the amount associated with water poured directly into the graduated canister is more compared to length of the particular sample. It was completed because the trial will be engrossed in to the water. When the sample is usually not immersed, it will be no good. The particular change in drinking water volume would become the volume associated with the part.
Figure40. Extruded polymer-bonded part immersed within water
The trial was then tossed in to the graduated canister. As the samples has been immersed in the graduated cylinder, the water level improved by 5. a few cm3.
4. 2. 2 Throw acrylic (Laser Cut) sample

The precise process that has been carried out for the first sample has been also carried away for that second test.

Figure41. Throw acrylic (Laser Cut) part immersed in water
The test was then thrown in to the graduated cylinder. While the samples has been immersed in the graduated canister, the water degree increased by several cm3.
four. second . 3 Toss acrylic (Experimental) sample
The actual process that will was performed intended for the first plus second sample seemed to be carried out intended for the third example.
Figure42. Toss acrylic (experimental) portion immersed in water
The sample had been then thrown directly into the graduated canister. While the sample was immersed within the graduated canister, the water levels increased by nine. 2 cm3.
4. 3 Data compresion test
Compressive check of a materials may be the force for each unit area that will it can endure during compression check. A compression check determines the behaviour associated with a material below crushing load. The particular sample is pressurized and deformation plus various loads is going to be recorded. Compressive tension and deflection are usually calculated and plotted as a tension deflection diagram, which usually is used to find out ultimate compressive power.
4. several. 1 Extruded polymer-bonded sample
For the particular first sample, the particular sample was positioned under load intended for the compression ensure that you the Lloyd device machine was utilized to compress the example. About 50% associated with compression was used according into the particular thickness of the particular part that was four mm so two mm of data compresion would be used. The diameter section of compression should end up being 12 mm.
Figure43. Compression check of extruded polymer-bonded part
As proven in Figure forty-four, which describes the particular compression behavior associated with the material exactly where that' s would certainly help to find out the ultimate compressive strength.

Force VS Deflection

14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0. 5 one. 5 2

Deflection (mm)

Figure44. Data compresion Test graph associated with extruded acrylic sample

Sample Calculations

Compressive strength (σ ) = (Maximum Load / Cross sectional area of the specimen)
d: Diameter of specimen.
Cross sectional area of the specimen that would be in compression =
d=12 mm (Diameter of the compressive circle that used in Lloyd instruments)
Maximum load = 13122 N

RESULT

Compressive strength of specimen = 116 MPa

Deflection VS Compressive Strength

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0. 5 1. 5 2

Deflection (mm)

Figure45. Compressive strength VS Deflection graph of extruded acrylic
4. 3. 2 Cast acrylic (Laser cut) sample
For the second sample, the sample was placed under load for the compression test and the Lloyd instrument machine was used to compress the sample. About 50% of compression was applied according into the thickness of the part which was 3 mm so 1. 5 mm of compression would be applied. The diameter area of compression should be 12 mm.
Figure46. Compression test of extruded acrylic part
As shown in Figure 47, which describes the compression behavior of the material where that' s would help to figure out the ultimate compressive strength.

Force VS Deflection

-0. 5

16000

14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0. 5 1. 5 2

Deflection (mm)

Figure47. Compression Test graph of cast acrylic (Laser Cut) sample

Sample Calculations

Compressive strength (σ ) = (Maximum Load / Cross sectional area of the specimen) d: Diameter of specimen.
Cross sectional area of the specimen that would be in compression =
d=12 mm (Diameter of the compressive circle that used in Lloyd instruments) Maximum load sama dengan 13684. 64 N

RESULT

Compressive power of specimen sama dengan 121 MPa

Deflection VS Compressive Strength

-0. 2

140

120
100
80
60
40
20
0. 2 zero. 4 0. six 0. 8 one 2 1. four 1. 6

Deflection (mm)

Figure48. Compressive strength VS Deviation graph of solid acrylic(Laser Cut)
four. 3. 2 Solid acrylic (Experimental) sample
For the 3 rd sample, the test was placed below load for that data compresion test and the particular Lloyd instrument model was used in order to compress the trial. The cylindrical form of acrylic (test tube sample) has been cutting in 4mm circle thickness in order to be compatible along with compression test. Regarding 50% of data compresion was applied in accordance in to the thickness associated with the part which usually was 3 millimeter so 1. five mm of data compresion would be used. The diameter region of compression ought to be 12 millimeter.
Figure49. Data compresion test of throw acrylic (Experimental) part
As shown inside Figure 50, which usually describes the data compresion behavior of the particular material where that' s would assist to determine the particular ultimate compressive power.

Force VERSUS Deflection

16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0. 2 zero. 4 0. six 0. 8 one 2 1. four 1. 6

Deflection (mm)

Figure50. Data compresion Test graph associated with cast acrylic(Experimental) sample

Sample Calculations

Compressive strength (σ ) = (Maximum Fill / Cross sectional area of the particular specimen) d: Size of specimen.
Cross sectional region of the example of beauty that might be in shrink =
d=12 millimeter (Diameter of the particular compressive circle that will used in Lloyd instruments) Maximum fill = 13478. 57N

RESULT

Compressive power of specimen sama dengan 119. 17 MPa

Deflection VS Compressive Strength

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0. two 0. 4 zero. 6 0. 6 1. 2 1 ) 4 1. 6

Deflection (mm)

Figure51. Compressive strength COMPARED TO Deflection graph associated with cast acrylic (Experimental)
4. 4 Burning Temperature Test
Burning temperature test can be used to determine the particular thermal stability associated with each part associated with the sample. Within this test, sizzling plate is utilized to heat upward the pieces till they would dissolve. Thermocouple was utilized to measure and inform the temperature for the hot plate.
Figure51. Melting temperatures test

Values associated with melting temperature dimension were:

Extruded acrylic melts with 150 ° G.
Experimental plus commercial cast polymer-bonded melts at one hundred sixty ° C.
4. 5 Tensile Test
Tensile check of a materials may be the force for each unit area that will it can endure during tension check. A tension check determines the behaviour associated with a material below elongation. Tensile check measures breakability attributes such as modulus, strength, elongation plus strain quality associated with the polymers. Tensile stress and stress are calculated plus plotted being a tension strain diagram, which usually is used in order to determine elastic limitations, yield point plus ultimate tensile strength (ts). Within that test trial and error part was not really capable of being used since of its round shape so since we verified inside density compression plus melting temperature testing how the experimental portion exist the equivalent properties of economic laserlight cut one since both of all of them were made simply by cast processing. Therefore in that cause we could evaluate cast acrylic making use of commercial part (Laser Cut) with extruded acrylic that' s i9000 accessible in the laboratory.
4. five. 1 Extruded polymer sample
For the first sample, the sample was placed under tension weight for the tensile test and the Lloyd instrument machine was used to elongate the trial.
Figure53. Tensile test of extruded acrylic

Force VERSUS Extension

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Extension (mm)

Figure54. Tensile Test graph of Extruded polymer sample

Sample Calculations

Ultimate Tensile stress (σ ) = (Maximum Load or Cross sectional area of the specimen) By given data:
Try to pick a point in Maximum weight = 2737. 1 N
@ point of maximum weight the Extension Δ L = 6. 6554 mm

So the stress would become,

and the strain,

So the percentage of elongation at the break point might be 3%

RESULT
Ultimate ultimate tensile strength of specimen = 72 MPa
Percentage of elongation of specimen at the split point = 3% Tensile Modulus (E) = 2. 4 GPa

Stress VERSUS Strain

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0. 005 0. 01 0. 015 0. 02 0. 025 0. 03 0. 035

Strain ε

Figure55. Tensile strength VERSUS Strain graph of Extruded acrylic
4. 5. 1 Solid acrylic sample
Regarding the first trial, the sample has been placed under pressure load for the tensile test and the Lloyd instrument machine was used to elongate the sample.
Figure56. Tensile test of extruded acrylic

Force VS Extension

-0. 5

1400

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0. 5 1. 5 2. 5 three or more. 5

Extension (mm)

Figure57. Tensile Test graph of Solid acrylic sample

Sample Calculations

Ultimate Tensile stress (σ ) = (Maximum Load / Cross sectional area of the specimen)
Try to pick a point in Maximum load = 1261.8N
@ point of maximum load the Extension ΔL = 3.2876 mm So the stress would be,
and the strain,

So the percentage of elongation at the break point would be 1.9%

RESULT
Ultimate tensile strength of specimen = 52.575 MPa Percentage of elongation of specimen at the break point = 1.9% Tensile Modulus (E) = 2.7 GPa

Stress VS Strain

60
50
40
30
20
10
-0.005 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025

Strain ε

Figure58. Tensile strength VS Strain graph of Cast acrylic

Chapter 5 – Discussion

Using Lauroyl Peroxide initiator could get much better results and it is getting the reaction to be much quicker with lower temperature than using AIBN.
Bubbles that form during the time for the reaction to get to the glycerine stage affected the shape of the specimen, so bubbles need to be prevented.
It was observed that the use of aluminum foil allowed the reaction solution to leak a much lesser amount of MMA during the reaction as compared to the fourth stage in which the temperature was higher than the third stage.
Observing after introducing a larger amount of initiator gives quicker reaction times even when lesser heat was supplied to the solution. About 1g of initiator was used for every 100g of MMA.
It was observed that the cast acrylic sample displaced 5 cm3 of water, while extruded sample displaced 3 cm3 as well as the experimental sample out of place 9. 2 cm3. This signifies how the experimental sample acquired the least thickness one of the three.
The extruded example a new compressive power of 116 MPa, cast acrylic laserlight cut sample acquired 121 MPa plus Experimental sample acquired 119 MPa. Therefore, Laser cut example had the top compressive strength.
Extruded acrylic touches and 150 ° C while trial and error and commercial dissolve at 160 ° C. So, extruded acrylic has the particular lowest melting stage.
Extruded fat sample includes an increased tensile strength associated with 72 MPa as the cast acrylic includes a lower tensile power of 52 MPa.

Chapter six – Conclusion plus Recommendations

According in order to the results that will we have attained throughout the experiment plus the observations, lightweight aluminum foil is superior to end up being used to avoid the evaporation associated with MMA during the particular reaction. We might consider to cool the response solution rapidly towards the glycerin stage to ensure that bubble formation might be avoided. We may also contact the natural chemistry lecturer Doctor Colleran to consider some guidance regarding the processing associated with PMMA. Nevertheless , right after approving the the best possible condition of digesting PMMA, moulds within accordance with the particular ISO standards associated with polymers specimen intended for each different check wo

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