Bipolar Disorder

Introduction

Bipolar disorder refers to a mental syndrome or manic-depressive ailment that leads to unusual changes in activity levels, energy, mood, and the capacity to conduct daily task. Scholarly evidence has pointed out four fundamental types of bipolar disorder, which depict clear alterations in the activity levels, energy and mood (Phillips and Kupfer 10). The changes can interrupt the behaviour, judgement, activity, energy, sleep and the capacity to think openly. The range of the moods takes place from the time of exceedingly energized and elated traits (manic experiences) to very hopeless or sad moments (depressive experiences) (Pompili et al 21).

Types of Bipolar Disorders

The four categories of bipolar disorder include Bipolar I disorder, Bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic disorder, and other unspecified and specified bipolar. Precisely, Bipolar I disorder is characterized by manic incidents that take place for more than seven days (Phillips and Kupfer 10). Similarly, manic symptoms may occur which are very serious hence they force an individual to seek emergency medical attention. Meanwhile, depressive experiences also feature for approximately fourteen days. It is also possible for the patient to suffer from mixed symptoms of manic and depression at the same period. Bipolar II Disorder is expressed by a pattern of hypomanic and depressive experiences. However, they form of illness do not exhibit complete episodes as in the case of Bipolar II episodes (Pompili et al 23).

Cyclothymic disorder is categorized by distinctive instances of hypomanic symptoms as well as frequent phases of depressive symptoms occurring for more than 2 years. Nonetheless, the symptoms fail to conform to the standards of depressive and hypomanic incidence (Phillips and Kupfer 11). Finally, the unspecified and specified bipolar and associated disorders are classified by symptoms similar to bipolar disorder although they do not closely match with the other categories above (Pompili et al 29).

Signs and Symptoms

Patients suffering from bipolar disorder exhibit instances of remarkably extreme emotions. In addition, they experience phases of sleep changes, uncommon behaviours, and activity levels. The mood episodes are radically diverse from the behaviours and moods that are common to a particular person. Other symptoms that are mutually appearing include changes in sleep, activity, and energy. Individuals possessing manic episodes are likely to feel extremely elated, “high,” or “up.” Similarly, they have a challenge in sleeping, as they tend to be hyperactive. Others talk quite faster on different issues and may become irritable or agitated. Sometimes these persons may engage in risky behaviours such as irresponsible sex (Phillips and Kupfer 23).

On the other hand, patients with depressive episodes may feel quite hopeless, empty, down, and sad. Similarly, they have possessed limited levels of energy, lower activity levels, and may be affected by a sense of emptiness and worry. Furthermore, they portray challenges to eat or to remember recent occurrence (Pompili et al 31). Additionally, an individual may deliberate to commit suicide and death. Finally, the episodes may force a person to feel slowed down or tired.

Diagnosis and treatment

Suitable treatment and diagnosis assist individuals with bipolar disorder aiming to facilitate productive and healthy lives. The first step in this process involves seeking medical attention from qualified health practitioner (Phillips and Kupfer 49). Medical evaluation or examination is conducted. Referrals are done to qualified psychiatrist who is knowledgeable in treating and diagnosing bipolar disorder (Pompili et al 43).

The illness is diagnosed among persons suffering from other diseases such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, psychosis, and substance abuse. Persons with this conductions are highly susceptible to obesity, diabetes, heart disease, migraine headache, and thyroid disease (Pompili et al 31).

Risk Factors

Various scientific evidence examine the probable cause of bipolar disorder. Different studies highlight that there are multiple causes of bipolar disorder. However, there are many aspects which raises the risk of the illness. Some of these include family history, genetics, and brain functioning and structure (Pompili et al 40). The condition is highly prevalent in certain families. A persons who sibling or parent has bipolar record have a higher risk of developing the conditions as compared to an individual without the disease history. Secondly, studies have noted that persons with some genes are more susceptible to this illness. Finally, brain functioning and structure contribute to the condition (Phillips and Kupfer 13). The brain of persons with the illness differs from those of healthy individuals.  

Treatment

The treatment of Bipolar disorder is focussed on the management of mood swings and related symptoms. A successful treatment strategy normally comprises an array of psychotherapy and medication (talk therapy). Since bipolar disorder is a permanent, lifelong and regular treatment is necessary in order to manage the symptoms (Pompili et al 31). Various types of medication can be used to manage the symptoms associated with this disorder. Some of these include mood stabilizers, antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants (Phillips and Kupfer 22).

Conclusion

Bipolar disorder is a serious condition which is characterized by depression and manic depression. the individual exhibit changing mood episodes which leads to emotional symptoms (Pompili et al 31). Some of the symptoms of this condition include distractibility, racing thoughts, uncommon talkativeness, lack of sleep, higher rate of energy and depressed mood. It can be managed through medication that control extreme symptoms (Phillips and Kupfer 14).

Work Cited

Phillips, Mary L., and David J. Kupfer. “Bipolar disorder diagnosis: challenges and future directions.” The Lancet 381.9878 (2013): 1663-1671.

Pompili, Maurizio, et al. “Epidemiology of suicide in bipolar disorders: a systematic review of the literature.” Bipolar disorders 15.5 (2013): 457-490.

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